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[EN] Key to the families

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Toelichting

5. NEPTICULIDAE

1
Forewing without paler markings
2
 
Forewing uniformly coloured or irrorate; distal part sometimes well-defined purplish.
-
Forewing with one or more pale spots or fasciae
 
 
2 (1)
Forewing with terminal cilia whitish, clearly separated from darker wing by a contrasting line of broad, dark-tipped scales
3
 
-
Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous with wing or sometimes paler, but not beyond a well-defined line of broad, dark-tipped scales
 
To this alternative belong two species with pale terminal cilia contrasting with dark distal part of forewing (see couplets 25 and 31).
 
3 (2)
Frons and collar brown to black
4
 
-
Head and collar from yellowish white to ferruginous or brown
5
 
 
4 (3)
Thorax dark brown, often with white caudal tips
 
7.0-10.5mm. July. Forewing blackish grey with whitish scales and often with whitish tornal spot.
-
Thorax yellowish white with brown caudal tips
 
6.5-8.5mm. August and September. Forewing blackish grey with whitish scales and often with whitish tornal spot.
 
5 (3)
Larger species, male 7.8-9.8mm, female 8.4-10.0mm
 
August and September. Frons and collar yellowish white to orange. Forewing greyish brown, irrorate, irroration caused by three types of scales: white with brown tips, white with yellowish tips an unicolorous white. Overlap in wingspan between T. squamatella and T. immundella makes it often necessary to inspect the male genitalia. This can be done without dissection by brushing away some hair-scales. The characteristic narrow valval tips, conspicuously curved inwards differ from those of T. immundella which are hardly curved.
-
Smaller species, 4.2-8.4mm.
6
 
If irroration occurs it is caused by only one type of scales (dark tipped) or two types (dark tipped and white or transparent and white). Specimens of Stigmella lapponica and S. confusella without pale fascia key out here (see couplet 95)
 
6 (5)
Forewing whitish to ochreous, irrorated by dark tipped and white scales
 
6.0-8.4mm. May to August. Frons from yellowish white to dark ferruginous, collar paler. Forewing pale ochreous to greyish brown; terminal cilia with irregular line. See couplet 29.
-
Forewing dark greyish to dark brown, hardly or not irrorated
7
 
 
7 (6)
Larger species, 6.0-7.5mm.
 
May (in Britain). Forewing dark grey, irrorated by dark tipped scales only. Frons orange, collar more yellowish; eyecap shining silvery white. See couplet 29.
-
Smaller species, 4.4-6.0mm.
8
 
 
8 (7)
Forewing with faint purple gloss; terminal cilia silvery grey
 
See couplet 55.
-
Forewing without purple gloss; terminal cilia whitish
9
 
 
9 (8)
Frons from whitish orange to ferruginous. Underside forewing in male with long, slender, white hair-pencil near frenulum
 
See couplet 56.
-
Frons from pale ochre to dark greyish brown. Underside forewing in male with conspicuous patch of yellowish orange androconial scales at base near costa
 
4.2-5.8mm. Mid May to mid August. Forewing dark greyish brown, slightly irrorated with dark tipped scales only. Collar coloured as frons; eyecap white.
 
10 (2)
Vertex from dark greyish brown to black
 
-
Vertex from yellowish to ferruginous or brown
 
 
11 (10)
Collar dark brown to black
 
-
Collar white or whitish
 
 
12 (11)
Larger species, 6.5-8.5mm. Forewing blackish brown. Eyecap blackish
 
Late May to August (in Britain). Rare dark form, f. fuliginella Vári, described from The Netherlands. See couplet 59.
-
Smaller species, 4.0-6,0mm. Forewing dark bronzy brown with strong metallic gloss. Eyecap white or whitish
 
Here dark-headed specimens of Stigmella aurella without fascia (a very rare form) key out.
 
13 (12)
Hindwing with blackish androconial hair-scales on costa and dorsum on basal two-thirds of wing extending over dorsal cilia to at most one-third the length of the cilia
 
4.5-6.0mm. May to early October. This is the common form with black vertex. Scape white. See couplets 27 and 43.
-
Hindwing with blackish androconial hair-scales on costa and dorsum on basal two-thirds of wing extending over dorsal cilia to about two-thirds length of cilia
S. atricapitella (part, male)
 
4.0-6.0mm. May to August. Vertex dark brown to deep black. Scape yellowish white.See couplet 16.
 
14 (11)
Frons from yellow to brown
 
-
Frons dark greyish brown to black
 
 
15 (14)
Forewing shining pale bronzy brown with distal part conspicuously shading into dark purple or brown
S. tiliae (part)
 
See couplets 19 and 26.
-
Forewing bronzy brown, occasionally grey, with distal part not distinctly dark purple or brown
 
 
16 (15)
Frons ochreous to brown
S. atricapitella (part, female)
 
4.0-6.0mm. May to August. Forewing dark bronzy brown with strong metallic gloss, without cilia along basal half of dorsum. Vertex varying from dark brown to black. Eyecap and scape white. See couplet 13.
-
Frons yellowish, occasionally brownish
 
 
17 (16)
Forewing dark bronzy brown with strong metallic gloss; terminal cilia concolorous with distal part of wing. Thorax concolorous with forewing
 
5.0-7.0mm. May to September. Vertex dark brown to black, sometimes ochreous (see couplet 45); eyecap white.
-
Forewing dark bronzy brown to grey with a slight greenish tint, without metallic gloss; terminal cilia greyish brown with slightly paler tips. Thorax black, darker than forewing
 
4.5-6.0mm. May and June, in Britain also in July and August. Vertex always black or blackish. This is the rare form without pale markings (see also couplet 51).
 
18 (14)
Forewing shining golden or greenish bronze, distal quarter deep purple, the transition in colour abrupt and well-defined. Larger species, 5.0-6.5mm
 
May and June, also in August. This is the dark-headed, less common form (f. fletcheri Tutt). Hindwing of male with some blackish scales in basal third. See also couplet 46.
-
Forewing with distal part not conspicuously purplish or distal part purple but ill-defined. Smaller species, 3.5-5.0mm.
 
 
19 (18)
Forewing shining pale bronzy-brown, distal part shading into dark purple
S. tiliae (part)
 
May, June and August (in Britain). Form with dark brown frons and black vertex predominant. See couplets 15 and 26.
-
Forewing bronzy brown or golden brown with faint purplish tinge at least distally
 
 
20 (19)
Forewing faintly shining bronzy brown, not golden, towards apex darker with faint purplish tinge. Vertex dark brown
S. viscerella (part)
 
Dark-headed form. See couplet 39.
-
Forewing golden brown, often shining. Vertex from dark brown to black
 
 
21 (20)
Forewing with pale golden brown tint, shining and with very faint purplish reflections, mainly in distal area
 
Form with frons and vertex blackish. See couplets 34, 42 and 48.
-
Forewing with basal area dark golden brown, purplish towards costa, purplish brown towards apex
S. aceris (part)
 
This is the form without pale metallic fascia, not yet recorded for The Netherlands. See couplet 130.
 
22 (10)
Collar greyish to dark blackish brown
 
4.2-5.0mm. Late May, June and August (in England). Forewing shining dark golden brown with paler golden brown middle part and more purplish distally. Hindwing in male with blackish brown androconial hair-scales at dorsum, extending over fringe to quarter length of cilia. Frons and vertex ferruginous.
-
Collar white, yellowish white or pale ochreous
 
 
23 (22)
Forewing without purplish or violet reflections
 
-
Forewing purple or with purplish and/or violet reflections
 
The reflections may be faint or restricted to distal part of wing.
 
24 (23)
Forewing with basal area at least partly bronzy brown, usually shining, sometimes with greenish tint or only with faint bronzy reflections
 
-
Forewing with basal part not bronzy brown
 
 
25 (24)
Forewing with terminal cilia yellowish grey, distinctly paler than the brown distal part of the wing; distal part coarsely scaled
 
4.2-6.2mm. May to August. Forewing with basal three-quarters bronzy brown, distal quarter brownish with variable purplish lustre; specimens occur with nearly unicolorous brownish forewings and also specimens with distal quarter of wing distinctly darker than rest of wing, as well as specimens with an ill-defined greyish fascia. See couplet 37 and 94.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous or not markedly paler than wing; smoothly scaled
 
 
26 (25)
Vertex brown or darker
S. tiliae (part)
 
See couplets 15 and 19.
-
Vertex orange or ferruginous, occasionally ochreous
 
 
27 (26)
Antenna slightly less than half length of costa forewing
S. ruficapitella (part, female)
 
4.5-6.0mm. May to October. Forewing dark bronzy brown with metallic lustre, distal area slightly darker, usually with faint violet gloss. See couplets 13 and 43.
-
Antenna half length of costa forewing or slightly longer in female, and two-thirds length of costa in male
S. roborella (part)
 
5.0-7.0mm. May to September. Forewing dark bronzy brown with metallic lustre, distal area slightly darker, usually with faint purple gloss. Females of S. ruficapitella and S. roborella can only reliably be separated by dissection; the latter species is easily recognized by the convolution of the ductus bursae. See couplet 43.
 
28 (24)
Forewing irrorated with dark-tipped (sometimes also white) scales
 
-
Forewing not irrorated
 
 
29 (28)
Forewing whitish to ochreous, irrorated with dark-tipped and white scales
 
See couplet 6.
-
Forewing dark grey, irrorated with dark-tipped scales only
 
See couplet 7.
 
30 (28)
Forewing wholly smoothly scaled. Smaller species, 3.9-4.6mm.
 
See couplet 47.
-
Forewing coarsely scaled, at least in distal part. Larger species, 4.8-6.6mm
 
 
31 (30)
Forewing with distal area distinctly darker coloured than rest of wing; terminal cilia white or pale yellow, strongly contrasting with wing
S. salicis (part)
 
4.8-6.6mm. May, June and August. Forewing with distal area from dark greyish brown to blackish brown, rest of wing paler or darker brown. Rare form without pale fascia (see also couplet 35). For forms with fascia see couplets 92 and 98.
-
Forewing nearly unicolorous; terminal cilia concolorous with wing (slightly paler at tips)
 
Forewing greyish brown. See couplet 40.
 
32 (23)
Forewing wholly purple or with purplish reflections
 
The reflections may be faint.
-
Forewing with purplish and/or violet reflections in distal part only
 
 
33 (32)
Forewing wholly dark purple, deepest in distal half
 
4.0-5.2mm. May and June. Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous with wing.
-
Forewing only with faint purplish reflections
 
 
34 (33)
Smaller species, 3.5-4.6mm
 
See couplets 21, 42 and 48.
-
Larger species, 4.6-6.6mm
 
 
35 (34)
Forewing glossy olive grey or bronzy brown; terminal cilia concolorous with wing (paler at tips)
 
4.6-5.0mm. June, July and September. See couplet 48.
-
Forewing dull: distal area dark brown, sometimes darker, rest of wing paler; terminal cilia white or pale yellow, strongly contrasting with wing
S. salicis (part)
 
Rare form without pale fascia. See couplets 31, 92 and 98.
 
36 (32)
Forewing with at least distal quarter coarsely scaled
 
-
Forewing smoothly scaled, shining
 
 
37 (36)
Forewing with terminal cilia yellowish grey, distinctly paler than brown distal part of wing; distal quarter coarsely scaled
 
See couplets 25 and 94.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous or not markedly paler than wing
 
 
38 (37)
Larger species, 6.0-7.0mm
 
May and June. Frons and vertex orange to ferruginous. Forewing unicolorous bronzy brown with faint metallic gloss.
-
Smaller species, 4.2-6.0mm
 
 
39 (38)
Smaller species, 4.2-4.9mm
S. viscerella (part)
 
4.2-4.9mm. Late May and June (in Britain). Pale-headed form, frons ochreous or brown. Forewing with terminal cilia brownish, silvery grey at tips. Up to the present no certain records are known from The Netherlands. See couplet 20.
-
Larger species, 5.0-6.0mm
 
 
40 (39)
Forewing with basal two-thirds less coarsely scaled
 
5.0-6.0mm. May and August. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow. See couplet 31.
-
Forewing wholly coarsely scaled
 
5.0-5,7mm. June and probably also later in the year. Frons and vertex ferruginous ochreous. S. incognitella and S. perpygmaeella are hardly separable on external characters. The male genitalia can be inspected without dissection by brushing some hair scales. In S. incognitella the roughly square uncus protrudes above the valvae, in S. perpygmaeella the uncus is slightly shorter than the valvae. In female dissection is necessary; S. incognitella is easily recognized by the presence of dense pectination on the dusctus bursae, absent in S. perpygmaeella.
 
41 (36)
Frons and vertex orange or ferruginous
 
-
Frons and vertex ochreous yellow, brown and darker
 
 
42 (41)
Smaller species, 3.5-4.6mm. Forewing with pale golden tinge
 
May and August (in England). Frons and vertex ferruginous; probably the most common form. See also couplets 21, 34 and 48.
-
Larger species, 4.5-7.0mm. Forewing dark bronzy brown, shining
 
 
43 (42)
Antenna slightly less than half length of costa forewing.
S. ruficapitella (part, female)
 
See couplets 13 and 27.
-
Antenna half length of costa forewing or slightly longer in female and two-thirds length of costa in male
S. roborella (part)
 
See couplet 27.
 
44 (41)
Vertex distinctly darker coloured than frons
 
-
Frons and vertex concolorous
 
 
45 (44)
Forewing shining pale bronzy brown with distal part distinctly dark purple or brown. Smaller species, 4.2-5.0mm
S. tiliae (part)
 
See couplet 15.
-
Forewing shining dark bronzy brown with distal part suffused with purple and occasionally also with dark blue. Larger species, 5.0-7.0mm
 
See couplet 17.
 
46 (44)
Larger species, 5.0-6.5mm
 
Forewing shining golden or greenish bronze, distal quarter deep purple, the transition in colour abrupt and well-defined. This is the common pale-headed form. See couplet 18.
-
Smaller species, 3.5-5.0mm
 
 
47 (46)
Forewing glossy very pale ochreous grey, somewhat silvery
 
3.9-4.6mm. May, June, in Britain also in August. Forewing with traces of purplish gloss in apical area, terminal cilia concolorous with wing, not paler at tips. Frons ochreous yellow to brown. See couplet 30.
-
Forewing shining golden brown or bronzy brown
 
 
48 (47)
Smaller species, 3.5-4.6mm. Forewing shining paler or darker coppery brown
 
Forewing with faint purplish tinge in apical area. See couplets 21, 34 and 42.
-
Larger species, 4.6-5.0mm. Forewing shining bronzy brown
 
Forewing with purplish reflections more distinct in distal third, but the transition in colour is ill-defined. See couplet 35.
 
49 (1)
Forewing with pale spots and with or without pale fascia
 
-
Forewing without pale spots, but with one or two pale fasciae
 
Fasciae sometimes indistinct.
 
50 (49)
Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous with dark coloured wing, tips slightly paler or with pale reflections
 
-
Forewing with terminal cilia whitish, clearly separated form darker coloured wing by a line of broad, dark tipped scales
 
 
51 (50)
Smaller species, 4.5-6.0mm. Forewing usually with whitish basal spot only (sometimes indistinct)
 
Pattern of markings forewing very variable, usually only a whitish basal spot, but also two opposite spots at two-thirds occur and enlarged spots occasionally confluent, sometimes forewing unicolorous dark coloured (see couplet 17). Frons yellowish, vertex brown to black.
-
Larger species, 7.4-8.5mm. Forewing with two opposite golden spots on costa and dorsum respectively, beyond middle
 
July, August and October. Forewing shining coppery purple. Frons and vertex orange to ferruginous.
 
52 (50)
Forewing only with a pale dorsal spot without other pale markings
 
-
Forewing with a pale dorsal spot (occasionally a pale median fascia) and also additional pale markings
 
 
53 (52)
Antenna yellowish orange. Forewing with whitish spot in middle of dorsum
 
5.5-7.0mm. June. Forewing blackish brown with a faint purplish sheen. Hindwing in male with short ochreous hair-pencil at one-fifth. Frons and vertex yellowish to ferruginous.
-
Antenna greyish or brownish. Forewing with pale dorsal spot on tornus
 
 
54 (53)
Frons and collar dark brown to black
4
 
-
Frons pale orange, ochreous orange or ferruginous, collar paler
 
 
55 (54)
Forewing with faint purple gloss; terminal cilia silvery grey
 
4.6-5.5mm. May, June and July, August (in Britain). Forewing dark grey, irrorated with dark-tipped scales; occasionally pale dorsal spot absent. Frons and vertex ochreous, orange or ferruginous. See couplet 8.
-
Forewing without purple gloss; terminal cilia white or yellowish white
 
 
56 (55)
Forewing dark greyish brown, sometimes irrorated whitish. Terminal cilia pale yellowish grey
 
4.4-6.3mm. May and June (in Britain). Forewing with tornal spot usually present, sometimes obsolete or absent. Hindwing of male with whitish hair-pencil near frenulum on underside. Frons and vertex yellowish orange to ferruginous; collar generally paler; eyecap yellowish white. See couplet 9.
-
Forewing blackish brown; scales with bases pale ochreous and tips blackish. Terminal cilia pure white
 
4.9-6.3mm. June and August. Hindwing male without hair-pencil. Frons and vertex yellowish orange to ferruginous ochreous.
 
57 (52)
Forewing with costal and dorsal pale spots only
 
Basal area of forewing without or with only a few whitish scales.
-
Forewing with costal and dorsal pale spots and also additional pale markings
 
 
58 (57)
Forewing with costal spot in or before middle of costa. Hindwing in male with costal bristles on underside
 
-
Forewing with costal spot beyond middle of costa. Hindwing on underside in male without costal bristles, but with hair-pencil near frenulum or with patch of pale androconial scales near apex
 
 
59 (58)
Forewing with dorsal spot well before tornus
 
5.0-6.5mm. Late April to July. Forewing blackish brown; both spots sometimes connected . An imaginary line connecting both spots perpendicular to costa (compare with both species of couplet 77). Frons, vertex and collar orange to ferruginous. See couplet 90.
-
Forewing with dorsal spot on tornus
E. weaveri (part)
 
6.5-8.5mm. Late May to August (in Britain). Forewing blackish brown; a rare form without pale spots occurs (see couplet 12). Frons orange, vertex ferruginous. In The Netherland parthenogenic.
 
60 (58)
Forewing with spots shining metallic silvery. In male hindwing on underside with large oval patch of raised yellow androconial scales near apex
 
4.2-5.8mm. July and August. Forewing blackish brown, basal third sometimes silvery grey. Frons and vertex from dark ferruginous to blackish brown. See couplet 63.
-
Forewing with spots white or yellowish white. In male hindwing on underside without patch of androconial scales, but with long whitish or yellowish hair-pencil near base costa
 
 
61 (60)
Antenna relatively short, less than half length of costa. Forewing with costal spot slightly beyond middle of costa
 
5.0-7.2mm, occasionally smaller. Late May and June (in Britain). Forewing blackish brown, irrorated paler; dorsal spot sometimes extending along dorsum towards base; the very rare f. simplicella Von Heinemann with yellowish white, almost unicolorous forewings is not known from The Netherlands. Frons and vertex from yellowish orange to ferruginous.
-
Antenna relatively long, beyond two-thirds of length costa. Forewing with costal spot beyond two-thirds of length costa
 
4.5-7.0mm. May, June and August (in Britain). Forewing blackish grey, irrorated with dark-tipped and sometimes white scales; both spots often form a fascia (see couplet 91). Frons and vertex yellowish orange, ferruginous or ochreous.
 
62 (57)
Forewing with basal third wholly or predominantly creamy white or silvery
 
-
Forewing in dark coloured basal third with pale scales
 
 
63 (62)
Forewing with basal third wholly or predominantly silvery
 
See couplet 60.
-
Forewing with basal third predominantly creamy white
 
5.4-6.0mm. Late May, early June and late July, August. Forewing dark greyish brown with very variable pattern of creamy white markings. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow to pale brown. Abdomen in female yellowish orange, in male greyish brown. See couplet 75.
 
64 (62)
Forewing in basal third with white or whitish scales, forming one or more ill-defined spots (sometimes only a few pale scales)
 
-
Forewing in basal third with well-defined white or whitish basal spot, basal streak or dorsal spot
 
 
65 (64)
Male
 
-
Female
 
 
66 (65)
5.0-7.0mm. Frons and vertex from pale ochreous yellow and yellowish orange to pale ferruginous
 
June to August. Forewing blackish brown with variable pattern of white or whitish spots. See couplets 67 and 72.
-
6.0-8.5mm. Frons and vertex yellowish orange to ochreous and blackish brown
E. turbidella (part, male)
 
May and June. Forewing as in male of E. hannoverella. From the foregoing it appears that dark-headed males belong to E. turbidella and pale-headed males with wingspan 5.0-6.0mm to E. hannoverella. Pale-headed males with wingspan 6.0-7.0mm can be inspected without dissection by brushing away some hair-scales. The valvae are different in shape, in E. hannoverella apically tapered without a tooth and slightly curved inwards, in E. turbidella with an apical tooth abruptly pointing inwards. Males with wingspan 7.0-8.5mm belong to E. turbidella. See couplet 67.
 
67 (65)
Inspection of genitalia without dissection, ovipositor blunt
E. hannoverella (part, female)
 
6.0-7.5mm. See couplets 66 and 72.
-
Ovipositor pointed
E. turbidella (part, female)
 
6.8-8.0mm. May and June. Forewing as male of E. hannoverella (couplet 66).
 
68 (64)
Head with frons black or blackish
 
-
Head with frons yellowish orange, ochreous to ferruginous
 
 
69 (68)
Forewing with broad creamy white fascia at one-third. Thorax whitish
 
4.8-8.1mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing blackish brown with basal spot, fascia at one-third (often connected with basal spot), costal spot at two-thirds and tornal spot, all creamy white. Frons vertex and collar black or blackish.
-
Forewing without pale fascia. Thorax black, white posterioirly
 
4.2-5.6mm. June and July (in England). Forewing black with costal spot at one-third, a dorsal spot near tornus and a discal spot at three-quarters, all silvery white. Frons, vertex and collar black.
 
70 (68)
Forewing with white or whitish fascia
 
-
Forewing without pale fascia
 
 
71 (70)
Forewing with inner edge of white fascia reaching at two-fifth or further
 
-
Forewing with inner edge white or creamy white fascia reaching costa at about at one-quarter
 
 
72 (71)
Forewing with inner edge of white fascia reaching costa from middle to two-thirds; in basal third a basal spot and one or two additional white spots
 
Form with confluent costal and dorsal spots. See couplets 66 and 67.
-
Forewing with inner edge of white fascia at about two-fifth; in basal third only a basal spot along dorsum
 
Form with confluent costal and dorsal spots. See couplet 77.
 
73 (72)
Collar yellowish white
 
6.1-9.2mm. May, June and August (in Central Europe) Forewing blackish brown with basal spot, fascia at one-third, costal spot at two-thirds and tornal spot, all pure white. Frons and collar ferruginous, sometimes more yellowish.
-
Collar ochreous to brown
 
5.7-6.8mm. April, May, July and September (in Britian). Forewing blackish brown with similar markings as E. sericopeza, but not pure white, but creamy white. Frons and collar more yellowish orange than in preceding species.
 
74 (70)
Forewing in basal third with white or whitish dorsal or costal spot
 
-
Forewing in basel third without pale dorsal or costal spot, but with white or whitish basal streak or basel spot, the latter often extended along dorsum, but occasionally only a few scales present
 
 
75 (74)
Forewing with broad creamy white basal streak
 
See couplet 63.
-
Forewing with white or whitish basal spot, often extended along dorsum
 
 
76 (75)
Forewing with roundish white spot at two-fifth from wing base, not reaching dorsum or costa
 
4.9 – 6.3mm. June and early July. Forewing coarsely scaled, blackish brown with white spots, viz. a basal spot (sometimes only a few scales), a roundish spot in basal area and well – defined triangular tornal and costal spots; spots never confluent. Frons and vertex ochreous to ferruginous; collar and eyecap whitish
-
Forewing without such a pale spot
 
 
77 (76)
Frons and vertex unicolorous yellowish orange to ferruginous orange, sometimes with dark brown hair-scales on vertex; collar dark brown
 
4.0-6.0mm. May to July. Forewing blackish brown with white basal spot, usually not extending to beyond one-third of distance to tornal spot; costal and tornal spots sometimes confluent, an imaginary line connecting costal and tornal spots at an angle of 60° to costa. Compare with E. albifasciella (couplet 59 ). See also couplet 72.
-
Head with frons dark ferruginous or brown, vertex brown to black, the transition in colour abrupt and well-defined; collar brown to black
 
4.2-5.5mm. June and July. Forewing blackish brown with basal, tornal and costal spots, basal spot often extending along dorsum to one-half of distance to tornal spot or more, an imaginary line connecting costal and tornal spots at an angle of 60° to costa (see couplet 61). The male genitalia of E. subbimaculella and E. heringi are almost identical, the female genitalia differ slightly.
 
78 (49)
Forewing with two indistinct, shining golden fasciae of variable width
 
4.5-5.5mm. May and August (in England). Forewing dark purplish bronzy with violet and blue reflections. Frons and vertex black, collar bronzy black.
-
Forewing with one pale fascia only
 
 
79 (78)
Forewing with terminal cilia abruptly paler (sometimes slightly) beyond an irregular line of broad, coarse dark-tipped scales
 
The combination of paler cilia and the line of dark-tipped scales is essential.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous with wing or sometimes paler, but not beyond a well-defined line of dark-tipped scales
 
Forewing with terminal cilia often tipped whitish or silvery at apex; in Stigmella alnetella cilia shining grey beyond a line of purplish scales.
 
80 (79)
Forewing with fascia shining metallic silver or pale golden
 
-
Forewing with fascia white or yellowish, not shining metallic, occasionally indistinct
 
 
81 (80)
Frons black
 
4.6-6.0mm. Late June and July (in Britain). Forewing blackish with silver fascia in middle of wing. Vertex and collar black, eyecap yellowish white.
-
Frons white to pale brown or ferruginous
 
Blackish-headed specimens occur very occasionally in E. atricollis and E. spinosella (see couplet 87).
 
82 (81)
Collar pale ferruginous or pale ochre, concolorous with frons and vertex or slightly paler
 
4.4-6.6mm. July (in Britain). Forewing brownish black with metallic silver fascia, constricted before middle, occasionally interrupted and usually extended along dorsum. Eyecap ochreous white.
-
Collar leaden grey to dark brown and black, sometimes whitish, not concolorous with head
 
 
83 (82)
Collar yellowish white
 
4.5-5.5mm. From May to August. Forewing dark greyish brown, the narrow silvery fascia often constricted in middle. Frons and vertex ochreous or ferruginous; eyecap whitish.
-
Collar dark brown, black or leaden grey
 
 
84 (83)
Forewing with purple and/or blue reflections
 
-
Forewing without such reflections
 
The blackish grey forewing of E. spinosella may have a very faint purplish shine (see couplet 87).
 
85 (84)
Larger species, 5.0-6.5mm. Frons and vertex unicolorous whitish to pale ochreous
 
April to September. Forewing proximal to fascia shining brown, the silvery or pale golden fascia (usually constricted in middle) preceded by purplish shading, distal to fascia dark purplish brown. Hindwing of male at base of costa with a large pencil of black androconial hair-scales. Collar dark leaden grey, eyecap pale ochreous yellow.
-
Smaller species, 4.0-5.0mm. Frons pale brown and vertex dark greyish brown
 
May and probably later in the year (in Central Europe). Forewing dark brown, base if costa with blue or purplish reflections, fascia shining silver or pale golden. Collar dark brown, eyecap white.
 
86 (84)
Forewing with terminal cilia silvery white, shading to grey at tornus, but hardly darker near apex and on costa, where line of dark-tipped scales extends round apex almost to the fascia
 
3.6-5.2mm. June and July (in Britain). Forewing black with the narrow silver fascia at an angle of 60o to dorsum, sometimes narrowed in disc, but rarely extended along costa or dorsum. Hindwing in male with pencil of pale yellowish hair-scales at base of costa. Frons yellow to ferruginous mixed with darker hair-scales, vertex slightly darker, collar black, eyecap white or yellowish white.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia silvery white or pale yellowish grey, shading to grey at tornus, near apex and on costa, line of dark-tipped scales ending at apex
 
 
87 (86)
Smaller species, 3.2-5.0mm. Forewing with fascia nearly perpendicular to dorsum
 
June (in England). Forewing blackish grey with relatively broad silvery fascia, concave at inner edge. Underside forewing in male with long tuft of grey or white hair-scales near base of costa. Hindwing also in male with a pencil of dark brown hair-scales at base of costa on upper side. Frons and vertex orange to brownish orange, collar blackish brown, eyecap cream.
-
Larger species, 4.8-6.2mm. Forewing with fascia at an angle of 60° to dorsum
 
July. Forewing blackish brown with narrow silvery fascia, nearly straight at inner edge, sometimes interrupted in disc or slightly extended towards base along costa and dorsum. Underside forewing in male without tuft of hair-scales. Hindwing in male with a pencil of white hair-scales at base of costa on upper side. Frons and vertex orange to ferruginous, collar black, eyecap yellowish white.
 
88 (80)
Forewing without purplish or bluish reflections
 
-
Forewing with purple, occasionally bluish reflections, particularly distal to fascia, sometimes faint
 
 
89 (88)
Forewing with inner edge of fascia slightly before middle of costa
 
-
Forewing with inner edge of fascia at two-thirds of costa or beyond
 
 
90 (89)
Forewing with terminal cilia white, grey at tornus; fascia white
 
Form with confluent costal and dorsal spots in forewing. Hindwing in male with costal bristles. See couplet 59.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia pale yellow, grey at tornus; fascia pale yellow
 
4.6-6.0mm. June and August, September. Forewing blackish brown; fascia sometimes extending along dorsum towards base. Hindwing in both sexes with costal bristles. Frons and vertex yellowish orange to ferruginous orange; collar and eyecap white or whitish.
 
91 (89)
Forewing proximal to fascia concolorous with area distal to fascia; fascia whitish
 
Form with costal and dorsal spots confluent. Hindwing in male with long white hair-pencil near base costa. See couplet 61.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia distinctly paler coloured than area distal to fascia; fascia pale yellow to ochreous yellow
 
 
92 (91)
Forewing proximal to fascia yellowish ochre; fascia only slightly paler; terminal cilia pale ochreous. Antenna half length of costa
 
5.0-6.0mm. Mid May to early July. In Britain also in August. Forewing with area distal to fascia dark brown; fascia sometimes interrupted or less distinct. Frons and vertex yellowish white to orange; collar pale yellow; eyecap whitish.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia pale brown to dark greyish brown; fascia distinctly paler; terminal cilia white to pale yellow. Antenna two-thirds length of costa
 
This form with pale fascia (sometimes interrupted) is the commonest. See couplets 31, 35 and 98.
 
93 (88)
Forewing with fascia ill-defined, yellowish grey to greyish
 
-
Forewing with fascia well-defined, occasionally reduced, white to yellowish grey
 
 
94 (93)
Smaller species, 4.5-6.2mm. Forewing proximal to fascia with bronze reflections, distal to fascia distinctly darker with purplish lustre
 
This is the form with fascia. See couplet 25.
-
Larger species, 6.0-7.5mm. Forewing proximal to fascia greenish brown without metallic sheen, distal to fascia hardly darker and with faint purplish gloss
 
May (in Britain). Forewing greyish brown. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow to greyish brown; collar whitish, eyecap white.
 
95 (93)
Forewing with inner edge of fascia at two-thirds of costa
 
-
Forewing with inner edge of fascia in middle of costa
 
 
96 (95)
Forewing proximal to fascia markedly coarsely scaled (slightly less than in distal area); scales of dividing line before pale cilia distinct
 
5.0-7.0mm. April to June and probably a small second brood later in the year. Forewing with basal two-thirds greyish brown, distal part darker with faint purplish gloss; fascia pale grey or white, sometimes interrupted or absent; terminal cilia greyish white. Frons ochreous, sometimes more orange, vertex slightly paler; collar whitish; eyecap whitish.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia glossier, slightly coarsely scaled (distinctly less than in distal area); scales of dividing line before pale cilia less distinct
 
5.0-7.0mm. May. Forewing with basal two-thirds yellowish brown to greyish brown, distal part darker with faint purplish gloss; fascia pale yellowish grey or yellowish white, sometimes interrupted or absent; terminal cilia pale greyish yellow. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow to ochreous brown; collar and eyecap whitish.
 
97 (95)
Antenna yellowish white, tipped pale grey. Hindwing pale grey with basal third of costal area brown
 
5.0-6.0mm. Late April, May and July, August. Forewing dark greyish brown, distal part slightly darker with faint violet reflections; fascia pale yellowish, not constricted or widened at dorsum. Underside of forewing in male with a conspicuous patch of dark brown scales near base. Frons and vertex pale ochreous; collar pale yellow; eyecap white.
-
Antenna grey or dark grey. Hindwing unicolorous pale grey
 
Underside of forewing in male without patch of dark brown scales.
 
98 (97)
Forewing proximal to fascia pale brown to dark greyish brown with purplish reflections; terminal cilia whitish to yellowish, pale grey at tornus
S. salicis (part)
 
Form with fascia (sometimes interrupted). See couplets 31, 35 and 92.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia purplish black; terminal cilia pure white
 
5.4-6.3mm. May, June and October. Forewing with distal area only slightly darker than basal half; fascia white or whitish, slightly glossy, usually broader at dorsum. Frons and vertex pale ochreous to ferruginous orange; collar white or whitish; eyecap white.
 
99 (79)
Forewing with fascia not or hardly metallic
 
-
Forewing with fascia shining metallic
 
 
100 (99)
Forewing with area proximal to fascia shining olive grey, dark purplish brown towards fascia. Antenna three-fifth length of costa
 
5.0-6.0mm. Late April to August. Forewing with distal area dark purplish brown, occasionally not darker towards fascia; fascia white or whitish; underside forewing in male with conspicuous patch of blackish brown scales near base. Hindwing in male near base of costa with brush of hair-scales on underside. Frons and vertex pale yellow or yellowish orange; collar yellowish white; eyecap white.
-
Forewing with fascia not so preceded. Antenna from distinctly shorter to slightly beyond half length of costa
 
 
101 (100)
Forewing with narrow fascia: width about one-fifteenth length of costa; area proximal to fascia nearly concolorous with distal area
 
4.0-5.2mm. May and August. Forewing purplish black; fascia whitish, slightly concave, not obscure at costa, not broadened at dorsum. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow to orange; collar whitish; eyecap whitish.
-
Forewing with broader fascia: width at least about one-tenth length of costa; distal area distinctly darker than area proximal to fascia
 
 
102 (101)
Forewing with fascia tapering towards costa or not reaching costa
 
-
Forewing with fascia not tapering towards costa
 
 
103 (102)
Larger species, 4.7-5.2mm
 
June and July. Forewing proximal to fascia bronzy or brown, distal area blackish purple; fascia sometimes ill-defined, yellowish, narrowed or obsolete near costa, often broadened at dorsum. Frons and vertex pale yellow to dark brown; collar white or whitish; eyecap whitish.
-
Smaller species, 3.4-4.6mm
 
 
104 (103)
Forewing with inner edge of fascia at about two-thirds of length costa, fascia not reaching costa forewing
 
Rare form (see couplet 106).
-
Forewing with inner edge of fascia just beyond middle of costa, fascia reaching costa forewing
 
4.0-4.6mm. May and July, August. Forewing proximal to fascia purplish bronze, distal to fascia blackish purple; fascia yellowish, slightly shining, straight and widest at dorsum, tapering towards costa. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow; collar and eyecap yellowish white.
 
105 (102)
Smaller species, 3.4-4.8mm. Forewing with purplish reflections. Hindwing in male without grey or white hair-pencil on underside
 
-
Larger species, 5.0-7.5mm. Forewing without purplish reflections. Hindwing in male with grey or white hair-pencil near base of costa on underside
 
Ectoedemia occultella occasionally with faint purplish reflections (see couplet 107).
 
106 (105)
Antenna extending to about two-thirds of distance between base of costa forewing and inner edge of fascia. Forewing narrow, costa nearly four times as long as width half-way wing
 
3.5-4.8mm. May to August. Forewing proximal to fascia bronzy or purple brown, distal to fascia purplish black; fascia shining white or whitish, often slightly constricted in middle. Frons and vertex ochreous yellow; collar and eyecap white or whitish. Parthenogenetic.
-
Antenna extending to about four-fifth of distance between base of costa forewing and inner edge of fascia. Forewing broader, costa about three times as long as width half-way wing
 
3.4-4.6mm. June and August. Commonest form. Forewing proximal to fascia purplish bronze, distal to fascia purplish black; fascia whitish, sometimes faintly metallic, not constricted, relatively broad. Frons and vertex pale ochreous yellow, often mixed dark; collar pale yellow or greyish; eyecap whitish.
 
107 (105)
Larger species, 5.0-8.5mm (usually larger than 6.0mm). Hindwing in male with long white hair-pencil near base of costa on underside. In female frons and vertex yellow to ferruginous yellow
 
Late April to June. Forewing black; fascia yellowish white, sometimes constricted or interrupted in middle. Frons and vertex in male black (often mixed with paler hair-scales), occasionally pale coloured as in female; collar similar. Frons and vertex in female yellow to ferruginous yellow; collar yellow; eyecap white.
-
Smaller species, 5.1-6.6mm. Hindwing in male with grey hair-pencil near base of costa on underside, slightly shorter than in E. occultella (the white pencil of this species easier to see) In female vertex black
 
May. Forewing black to dark grey; fascia white, sometimes constricted or interrupted in middle. Frons and vertex in male black; collar black; eyecap white. Vertex in female always black; frons also black, but often mixed with paler hair-scales, occasionally ferruginous yellow; collar black; eyecap white.
 
108 (99)
Vertex yellowish orange to ochreous and ferruginous
 
-
Vertex blackish brown to black
 
 
109 (108)
Forewing with basal area distinctly purple or purplish brown towards fascia
 
-
Forewing with fascia not preceded by such a purple or purplish brown band
 
 
110 (109)
Collar yellowish white or pale ochreous
 
-
Collar brown, dark brown, black or coppery
 
 
111 (110)
Forewing with basal area shining bronzy golden with strong violet purplish reflections
Stigmella lemniscella (part, female)
 
4.9-5.4mm. May, June and August. Forewing with fascia shining silver. Frons and vertex ochreous to orange; collar yellowish white; eyecap pale yellow. See couplet 128.
-
Forewing with basal area dark greenish bronze without violet purplish reflections before purplish band preceding fascia
 
4.8-5.3mm. May and also later in the year in Central Europe. Forewing with fascia shining silver. Frons and vertex yellowish orange; collar pale yellow or pale ochreous; eyecap yellowish white.
 
112 (110)
Forewing with fascia tapering towards costa; basal area brownish golden with purple reflections, without bronzy tinge. Antenna about half length costa
S. speciosa (part, female)
 
4.8-5.5mm. July. Forewing with distal area purplish black; fascia strongly shining silver to pale golden. Frons and vertex pale ochreous to ferruginous; collar dark brown; eyecap white. See couplet 127.
-
Forewing with fascia not tapering towards costa; basal area bronzy purple or purplish bronzy golden. Antenna about two-thirds length costa
 
 
113 (112)
Smaller species, 4.0-5.0mm. Forewing with basal area dark bronzy purple
 
Late April to June and September. Forewing with distal area purplish black with strong violet blue reflections; fascia concave, pale golden or silvery. Frons and vertex orange through ochreous yellow to ferruginous; collar dark brown; eyecap pale yellow. See couplet 119.
-
Larger species, 5.0-6.5mm. Forewing with basal area purplish bronzy golden
S. aurella (part)
 
March to May, probably continuously brooded. Forewing with distal area purplish black with violet blue reflections; fascia straight, shining golden. Frons and vertex orange to brown; collar dark brown, shining; eyecap pale yellow to pale brown. See couplet 128. This is the common pale-headed form.
 
114 (109)
Forewing in basal area without purple, violet or blue reflections
 
-
Forewing in basal area with purple, violet or blue reflections
 
 
115 (114)
Smaller species, 4.5-5.5mm. Antenna reaching to middle of costa; eyecap white or whitish
 
June to August. The red-headed form. Forewing proximal to fascia bronzy or golden brown, distal to fascia purplish brown; fascia silvery to pale golden, shining. Costa and dorsum hindwing of male with brownish to bluish androconial scales extending over cilia to at most one-fifth. Frons and vertex ferruginous; collar whitish to brown; eyecap white. See also couplet 125.
-
Larger species, 6.0-6.8mm. Antenna reaching to outer edge of fascia; eyecap silvery white, posterior margin grey
 
June. Forewing proximal and distal to fascia shining brown; fascia outwardly angulated, bright silver, sometimes interrupted. Frons and vertex orange, collar shining dark brown
 
116 (114)
Collar whitish to ferruginous
 
5.0-6.0mm. April, May and July, August (in Britain). Forewing brown to blackish with purple gloss; fascia silver or pale golden. Frons and vertex ferruginous; eyecap whitish. See couplet 124.
-
Collar dark brown to blackish brown
 
 
117 (116)
Forewing with basal area conspicuously shining golden brown with strong purplish reflections. Hindwing in male with purplish black androconial scales at dorsum extending to one-third length of cilia or slightly less
 
4.5-5.0mm. Late May and June (in Britain). Forewing distal to fascia purplish black; fascia broad, pale golden. Frons and vertex ferruginous orange; collar blackish brown; eyecap whitish.
-
Forewing with basal area relatively dull, without shining golden tinge, bronzy brown, purplish brown to (occasionally) black. Hindwing in male without androconial scales
 
 
118 (117)
Forewing with terminal cilia concolorous with purplish black distal area of wing, shining silvery grey at tips. Collar blackish brown
 
3.9-4.8mm. May, June and August (in Britain). Forewing proximal to fascia purplish dark brown to blackish; fascia narrow, bright silver. Frons and vertex ferruginous; scape shining whitish, usually edged with metallic grey.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia distinctly paler, dark brown or grey, occasionally with tips slightly paler. Collar dark brown
 
The white or pale yellow scape not edged greyish.
 
119 (118)
Vertex ochreous yellow to orange. Forewing proximal to fascia dark bronzy brown with strong purplish or violet blue reflections
 
Here key out specimens of S. plagicolella without a distinctly darker band preceding fascia. See couplet 112.
-
Vertex pale ochreous to dark brown without yellowish or orange tinge. Forewing proximal to fascia dark brown or dark bronzy brown with faint purple reflections
 
 
120 (119)
Generally larger species, 4.0-5.0mm (usually somewhat less than 5.0mm). Forewing with fascia ill-defined, broad (width about one-fifth length of wing) and with inner edge straight
 
May and August (in Britain). Forewing proximal to fascia bronzy brown with faint or obscure purple reflections, distal to fascia dark purplish brown, fascia silver to pale golden. Frons ochreous to ferruginous; vertex brown; collar dark brown; eyecap pale yellow.
-
Generally smaller species, 3.5-5.0mm (usually somewhat less than 4.0mm). Forewing with fascia well-defined, narrow (width about one-seventh length of wing) and with inner edge concave
 
May and early August. Forewing proximal to fascia dark bronzy brown with faint purple reflections, distal to fascia darker, also with faint purple reflections. Frons pale ochreous to ferruginous; vertex darker; collar dark brown; eyecap pale yellow. S. ulmariae and S. poterii hardly separable on external characters. Male genitalia can be inspected without dissection; in S. ulmariae distal process of valva strong and pointed, in S. poterii long and blunt. The female genitalia of both species are not separable without dissection.
 
121 (108)
Collar dark grey, blackish brown, blackish or black
 
-
Collar white to brown
 
 
122 (121)
Antenna blackish brown with distal third whitish
 
4.8-5.6mm. Mainly in June (in Britain). Forewing proximal to fascia bright coppery with variable purplish gloss, distal to fascia purplish black; fascia silvery, narrowed and sometimes obsolete at costa. Frons and vertex blackish; collar blackish; eyecap white or whitish.
-
Antenna unicolorous grey to brownish and blackish brown
 
 
123 (122)
Forewing proximal to fascia not darker towards fascia
 
-
Forewing proximal to fascia distinctly darker towards fascia
 
 
124 (123)
Forewing proximal to fascia with purple gloss
 
5.0-6.0mm. The rare black-headed form hodgkinsoni Stainton. See couplet 117.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia without purple gloss
 
 
125 (124)
Larger species, 4.5-5.5mm. Forewing with distal area purplish brown
 
June to August. The black-headed form. See also couplet 115.
-
Smaller species, 3.5-4.5mm. Forewing with distal area almost black
 
Form with dark collar. See couplet 130.
 
126 (123)
Hindwing with long black or blackish androconial hair-scales on costa and dorsum
 
-
Hindwing without androconial hair-scales
 
 
127 (126)
Hindwing with androconial hair-scales extending over dorsal cilia to at most half length cilia. Eyecap white, not tipped black above
S. speciosa (part, male)
 
4.5-5.0mm. July. Forewing proximal to fascia shining golden brown, distal to fascia purplish black; fascia strongly shining silver to pale golden. Frons, vertex and collar black. See for female couplet 112.
-
Hindwing with androconial hair-scales extending over dorsal cilia to at most two-thirds length cilia. Eyecap white, tipped black above
S. lemniscella (part, male)
 
5.0-5.5mm. May, June and August. Forewing proximal to fascia shining bronzy golden with strong violet purplish reflections, distal to fascia dark brownish purple; fascia shining silver. Frons ochreous, vertex black; collar blackish brown. See couplet 111.
 
128 (126)
Vertex black
 
4.5-6.0mm. June and July. Forewing proximal to fascia shining purplish golden, somewhat greenish, distal to fascia dark purplish brown; fascia pale golden. Frons and vertex ochreous to dark brown; collar blackish purple; eyecap white or whitish.
-
Vertex brown or dark brown
S. aurella (part)
 
Specimens with dark vertex. See couplet 112 for the common form with orange head.
 
129 (121)
Forewing proximal to fascia distinctly darker towards fascia
 
4.0-4.7mm. May and August (in Britain). Forewing with basal half shining golden or bronze, fascia preceded by a broad dark purple band, distal to fascia dark purplish brown; fascia silvery or pale golden. Frons and vertex blackish; collar whitish; eyecap white.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia not darker towards fascia
 
 
130 (129)
Forewing proximal to fascia dark golden brown with purplish tinge near costa. Antenna about two-fifth length costa
S. aceris (part)
 
3.5-4.9mm. May, June and August (in England). Forewing distal to fascia dark purplish brown; fascia silvery to pale golden, occasionally fascia absent (see couplet 21). Hindwing in male without androconial hair-scales. Frons and vertex blackish brown to black; collar whitish; eyecap white.
-
Forewing proximal to fascia brownish golden without purplish tinge. Antenna half length costa or slightly beyond
 
3.5-4.5mm. May and early June (in Britain). This is the common form with pale collar (see couplet 125). Forewing distal to fascia purplish black; fascia silvery to pale golden. Hindwing of male with short blackish androconial hair-scales along costa and dorsum, extending over dorsal cilia to one-quarter of length of cilia at most. Frons and vertex black; collar pale coloured; eyecap white.
 

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