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[EN] Key to the families

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Toelichting

Key to the families

1
Wings more or less reduced (brachypterous, Fig. 2), occasionally completely absent (Fig. 1, 2)
2
 
The wings are not functional. Only occurring in females.
-
Wings developed normally, not notably reduced
7
 
 
2 (1)
Adult female lives in or upon larval case
Larger moth
 
Psychidae (part).
-
Adult female not in or upon larval case, but free-living
3
 
 
3 (2)
Labial palpus rudimentary, with only two segments (Fig. 3). Wings unicolorous pale greyish-brown, almost whitish
Pyralidae (part)
 
Acentria Stph. with one species: A. ephemerella. Labial palpus between the narrow basal segment and the second clavate segment with a short joint without scales. This joint is not considered as a separate segment. The development of the wings of the female varies considerably: from normal (sometimes even larger than in male), to nearly absent (apterous). Brachypterous and apterous females remain in the water for their whole life.
-
Labial palpus with three segments and normal for Lepidoptera, albeit sometimes small. Wings from pale greyish-brown to greyish-black and usually with markings
4
 
 
4 (3)
Posterior tibia without median spurs (Fig. 4)
Larger moth
 
Geometridae (part) and Lymantriidae (part). Legs sometimes densely haired or scaled.
-
Posterior tibia with median spurs (Fig. 5)
5
 
 
5 (4)
Labial palpus at least one and a quarter times length of head (Fig. 6). When in doubt labial palpus curved upwards
 
4.0-10.0 mm. Diurnea Hw. and Dasystoma Curt. with two and one species respectively.
-
Labial palpus at most slightly longer than length of head; never curved upwards
6
 
 
6 (5)
Head with ocelli absent
Larger moth
 
Geometridae (part)
-
Head with ocelli present (Fig. 7)
Tortricidae (part)
 
9.0-12.0 mm. Exapate Hb. with one species: E. congelatella.
 
7 (1)
Antenna with flagellum distinctly thickened above middle or apically clavate (Fig. 8 a, b, c). In hindwing frenulum or bristles absent
Larger moth
 
18.0-120.0 mm. Zygaenidae (part), Sphingidae (part) and butterflies.
-
Antenna not thickened above middle or apically clavate (Fig. 8d). Hindwing with frenulum (Fig. 9) or with bristles (Fig. 10)
8
 
 
8 (7)
Wings cleft into two or more plumes (Fig. 11, 12)
9
 
-
Wings entire
 
 
9 (7)
Hindwing fissured to form three plumes (Fig. 11)
 
10.5-30.0 mm. All Pterophoridae except the genus Agdistis Hb. Forewing cleft into two plumes from middle to three-quarters.
-
Hindwing fissured to form six plumes (Fig. 12)
 
5.0-7.0 mm. Forewing also cleft into six plumes.
 
10 (8)
Hindleg with tibia at least two times length of femur (Fig. 13). Underside hindwing with 3 and common stalk of 2 and 3 provided with a conspicuous pecten of large scales (Fig. 14)
 
20.0-30.0 mm. Agdistis Hb. with two species. Adult with the characteristic appearance of a pterophorid moth, albeit the wings are not cleft into plumes (Fig. 15).
-
Hindleg with tibia not exceeding two times length of femur. Underside hindwing without pecten (Fig. 16)
 
 
11 (10)
Shape and size of forewing resemble those of hindwing (compare Fig. 17 and 23). In hindwing with 7 consisting of complex of veins (Fig. 17)
 
-
Shape and size of forewing differ markedly from those of hindwing. Hindwing with 7 simple (Fig. 18)
 
 
12 (10)
Larger than 20.0 mm. Antenna hardly longer than head. Legs without tibial spurs (Fig. 19)
Larger moth
 
20.0-50.0 mm. Hepialidae.
-
Smaller than 15.0 mm. Antenna more than one-third of length costa. Legs with tibial spurs (Fig. 20, 22)
 
Forewing with metallic golden, bronzy golden or purplish colours. Adults fly mainly in daytime; from March – June.
 
13 (12)
Hindtibia with groups of small spines around the spurs (Fig. 20). Forewing with 11 and 12 connected by bar (Fig. 21)
 
6.0-12.2 mm. Adults from late April – late June.
-
Hindtibia without spines around the spurs, albeit the tibia are loosely haired (Fig. 22). Forewing with 11 and 12 not connected by bar (Fig. 23)
 
7.5-18.5 mm. Adults from mid March – late May.
 
14 (11)
Antenna with basal segment (scapus) much enlarged and concave beneath to form an eyecap (Fig. 24, 25)
 
3.0-13.0 mm. A group of families with small to minute species.
-
Antenna with scapus not forming an eyecap (Fig. 8d)
 
Occasionally the scapus is thickened with scales (e.g. Tischeriidae (Fig. 26) and some coleophorid species, see Fig. 27), this thickening cannot be considered as an eyecap.
 
15 (14)
Head with maxillary palp folded and well developed (Fig. 28). Forewing with transverse vein absent or indistinct (Fig. 29, 30)
 
-
Head with maxillary palp absent or reduced (and not folded, Fig. 7, 31). Forewing with transverse vein (Fig. 32)
 
 
16 (15)
Forewing with conspicuous metallic silvery spot near tornus; in apical half ochreous yellow bars from costa towards tornus (Fig. 33)
Lyonetiidae (part)
 
5.0-9.0 mm. Leucoptera Hb. Ground colour forewing snow white or shining grey.
-
Forewing without conspicuous metallic spot near tornus; in apical half ochreous yellow bars absent
 
 
17 (16)
Head with frons and vertex rough-haired (Fig. 25). Forewing with veins at least partly furcate, more than one vein ending in costa (Fig. 30)
 
3.0-10.0 mm. Forewing often dark brown with a silvery or golden transverse fascia or costal and tornal spots (Fig. 34), sometimes unicolorous shining golden or brownish; occasionally pale coloured with scattered dark scales.
-
Head with frons and vertex rough-haired except the smooth back of vertex (Fig. 35). Forewings with veins not furcate; only one distinct vein ending in costa, viz. 12 (Fig. 29)
 
7.0-12.0 mm. Eyecaps relatively large. Ground colour forewing white, often with yellowish or darker markings.
 
18 (15)
Antenna broadly of same length as costa
Lyonetiidae (part)
 
8.0-10.0 mm. Lyonetia Hb. Forewing with ground colour shining white, occasionally partly or wholly suffused greyish.
-
Antenna distinctly shorter than costa
 
 
19 (18)
Labial palpus well-developed (Fig. 36)
 
-
Labial palpus reduced or completely absent
 
 
20 (19)
Head with frons and vertex smooth (Fig. 37). Hindtibia with series of long bristles above (Fig. 38)
 
6.0-8.0 mm. Phyllocnistis Zell. Antenna with eyecap relatively small (Fig. 36); length antenna four-fifths of costa forewing. Labial palpus porrected, filiform, pointed (Fig. 36).
-
Head with vertex rough, frons smooth. Hindtibia smooth-scaled (Fig. 16)
 
7.0-13.0 mm. Argyresthia Hb. Antenna with scape relatively large (with distinct pecten), but no real eyecap, length three-fifths to four-fifths of costa. Labial palpus variable.
 
21 (19)
Forewing with divergent, straight dark lines in apical cilia and a conspicuous metallic silvery spot near tornus (Fig. 33)
Lyonetiidae (part)
 
5.0-9.0 mm. Leucoptera Hb. Forewing with ground colour snow white or shining grey.
-
Forewing without divergent, dark lines in apical cilia, also a metallic spot near tornus is absent
 
6.0-9.0 mm. In forewing dark cilia lines parallel to termen may occur.
 
22 (14)
Hindwing with cilia near end of vein 2 of same length or shorter than greatest width of hindwing (Fig. 39, 46, 50, 51)
 
Cilia in basal part of hindwing usually longer.
-
Hindwing with cilia near end of vein 2 longer than greatest width of hindwing (Fig. 40, 103, 104, 105, 111)
 
 
23 (22)
Antenna very long: from nearly twice to four times length costa forewing
Adelidae (part)
 
9.0-21.0 mm. Nematopogon Zell. (males and females), Nemophora Ill., Adela Latr., Cauchas rufimitrella (males). Forewing often shining metallic or glossy ochreous yellow.
-
Antenna not extending to costa forewing
 
 
24 (23)
Labial palpus largely reduced
Larger moth
 
7.0-28.0 mm. Psychidae (part).
-
Labial palpus well-developed
 
 
25 (24)
Hindwing with termen beneath the tapered apex strongly sinuate or excavated (Fig. 41)
 
Hindwing beneath apical area convex or subrectangular. Labial palpus long, recurved.
-
Hindwing with termen beneath apex not or hardly sinuate (Fig. 39)
 
 
26 (25)
Antenna of about same length as costa forewing. Shape of forewing as in many tortricids: suboblong and termen little oblique (Fig. 42)
Oecophoridae (part)
 
15.0-19.0 mm. Carcina Hb. with one species: C. quercana. Forewing pale purplish with yellowish markings.
-
Antenna shorter: from two-thirds to three-fourths length of costa forewing. Forewing with apex rounded and termen more or less oblique (Fig. 43)
Gelechiidae (part)
 
10.0-20.0 mm. The greater part of the gelechiid genera represented in The Netherlands belong to this group.
 
27 (25)
Maxillary palp well-developed, consisting of more than three segments, folded in middle (Fig. 28)
 
-
Maxillary palp absent or reduced, not folded (Fig. 7, 44, 45)
 
Reduced maxillary palps may be well visible, e.g. the filiform maxillary palp in the genera Acrolepia Curt. and Acrolepiopsis Gaed. (Fig. 44) and the slender maxillary palp in the Gracillariidae (Fig. 45).
 
28 (27)
Hindwing with cilia near end of vein 2 relatively short: less than one third of greatest width of hindwing (Fig. 46, 47, 48)
 
9.0-16.0 mm. Both families are lumped here because it is difficult to define them based on external characters. Forewing usually dark with yellowish or white spots (Fig. 47, 48), sometimes unicolorous yellowish or prismatic bronzy brown, glossy and occasionally dark with scattered pale dots.
-
Hindwing with ciliae near end of vein 2 relatively long: at least the half of greatest width of hindwing (Fig. 49)
 
 
29 (28)
Forewing shining dark bronzy brown with two silvery white transverse fasciae (Fig. 50). Foretibia longer than half length of femur
 
6.5-8.5 mm. Phylloporia Hein. with one species: P. bistrigella. Antenna of about same length as costa.
-
Forewing blackish, brownish or paler and without two silvery white transverse fasciae. Foretibia not exceeding half length of femur
Tineidae (part)
 
7.0-28.0 mm. Crassicornella Agenjo, Haplotinea Diak. & Hinton, Infurcitinea Spul., Morophaga H.S., Triaxomera Zag., Nemaxera Zag., Nemapogon Schr., Triaxomasia Zag., Trichophaga Rag., Tinea L., Niditinea GPet., Monopis Hb. Larvae usually feeding on vegetable detritus, or lichens and fungi, sometimes case-bearing.
 
30 (27)
Hindwing with cilia near end of vein 2 relatively short: less than one-third of greatest width hindwing (Fig. 51, 53)
 
-
Hindwing with cilia near end of vein 2 relatively long: at least one-third of greatest width hindwing (Fig. 39, 52)
 
 
31 (30)
Wings largely hyaline (Fig. 53). Head with ocelli
Larger moth
 
15.0-45.0 mm. Sesiidae (clearwing moths). Length of costa forewing at least three times greatest width of wing. Hindwing with 8 hidden under costal fold.
-
Wings completely covered with scales or occasionally for the greater part; in the latter case head without ocelli
 
 
32 (31)
Hindwing with one or two anal veins (Fig. 54, 55)
Larger moth
 
9.0-123.0 mm. Psychidae (part), Drepanidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Endromidae, Lemoniidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pantheidae. Missing anal veins in hindwing may be marked by folds.
-
Hindwing with three anal veins (1a, 1b, 1c) (Fig. 9, 10, 18, 39, 40, 51, 52)
 
Anal veins in hindwing clearly visible.
 
33 (32)
Labial palpus long, recurved und usually protruding above the head (Fig. 56)
 
-
Labial palpus long or short, slightly ascending, porrected or drooping (Fig. 7, 57, 58)
 
 
34 (33)
Forewing rather unicolorous dark brown to ochreous, usually with some dark spots and a dark longitudinal discal streak, occasionally veins marked with pale streaks
 
21.0-28.0 mm. Orthotelia Stph. With one species: O. sparganella. Forewing with apex rectangular, termen straight, little oblique.

Here also keys out the very rare alien Metathrinca tsugensis (Xyloryctidae). This species has its forewing more rounded and predominantly whitish with brownish markings in distal one-fifth.
-
Forewing white with contrasting blackish brown markings or ground colour pale grey with black spots
Oecophoridae (part)
 
15.0-26.0 mm. Ethmia Hb.
 
35 (33)
Hindtibia with midspurs very short or absent (Fig. 4)
Larger moth
 
14.5-104.0 mm. Psychidae (part), Limacodidae (part ), Cossidae, Zygaenidae (part).
-
Hindtibia with midspurs well-developed (Fig. 5)
 
 
36 (35)
Hindwing with vein 8 fused with cell to middle (Fig. 59). Thick and noctuid-like appearance
Larger moth
 
20.0-29.0 mm. Limacodidae (part). Forewing ochreous with two dark brown transverse lines.
-
Hindwing with vein 8 separate (Fig. 9, 61, 62, 63) or stalked with 7 (Fig. 60). Not noctuid-like
 
 
37 (36)
Hindtibia with a band of very long hairs (Fig. 64) or a row of hairs combined with hair tufts distally covering partly first tarsal segment (Fig. 65)
 
The tibial hairs may partly disappear in older specimens.
-
Hindtibia without a band or a row of long hairs and without hair tufts distally covering partly first tarsal segment (Fig. 66, 67)
 
 
38 (37)
Hindtibia without hair tufts covering partly first tarsal segment (Fig. 64)
 
17.0-31.0 mm. Diurnea Hw. (one species), Dasystoma Curt. (one species). Females with reduced wings. Moths from March to late April, often resting on stems.
-
Hindtibia with hair tufts covering partly first tarsal segment (Fig. 65)
 
9.0-14.0 mm. Anthophila Hw., Prochoreutis D. & H., Choreutis Hb. Shape of forewing as in many tortricids (Fig. 68). Anthophila fabriciana (Fig. 68) is widely distributed and often abundant, flies in daytime, usually around nettles, and walks with characteristic jerky movements. In resting position the wings are usually held horizontally, slightly apart.
 
39 (37)
Labial palpus with second segment thickened by rough scales, becoming usually triangular or oviform (in side-view) (Fig. 7). Length antenna from about one-half to two-thirds of costa. Hindwing with 7 and 8 separated albeit sometimes close together (Fig. 9)
 
8.0-28.5 mm. Largest family of smaller moths: 358 species. Labial palpus with third segment usually short and blunt, wholly or partly covered with hairs of second segment (Fig. 7). Examples of forewing markings are shown in Fig. 69 and Fig. 70. To this family belong widespread and common species as Tortrix viridana and Argyroploce lacunana and also Cydia pomonella (codling moth), a pest of apples.
-
Labial palpus with second segment not thickened by rough scales, not becoming triangular or oviform, but usually slender and sometimes long (Fig. 71, 72, 73). Hindwing with 8 usually stalked with 7 (Fig. 74)
Pyralidae (part)
 
10.0-29.0 mm. Large family with 177 species. Labial palpus with third segment slender and well visible (Fig. 71, 72, 73). Hindwing with venation as mentioned above (Fig. 74) exclusive of the Pyralinae (Fig. 61) with the exception of Endotricha flammealis. Examples of forewing markings are shown in Fig. 75, 76, 77. To this family belong widespread and common species as Cataclysta lemnata and Agriphila straminella and also the well-known Pyrausta aurata, occurring mainly in gardens.
 
40 (30)
Labial palp drooping (Fig. 78), porrected (Fig. 79) or slightly ascending (Fig. 80, 81). In latter case scale tuft of second segment (if present) porrected (Fig. 82, 83)
 
Labial palp sometimes weakly curved (Fig. 81), length from slightly shorter than head to approximately four times head.
-
Labial palp recurved and usually protruding above head (Fig. 56, 84)
 
 
41 (40)
Length antenna from one to one and a half length costa forewing
Adelidae (part)
 
7.0-20.0 mm. Nemophora Ill., Adela Latr., Cauchas rufimitrella (female) and C. fibulella (both sexes). See couplet 23.
-
Antenna distinctly shorter than costa forewing
 
 
42 (41)
Head with long rough hair-scales, their tips dilated and/or furcate, also labial palp with rough scales (Fig. 80)
Ypsolophidae (part)
 
9.0-12.0 mm. Ochsenheimeria Hb. The characteristic adults (Fig. 85) fly freely in the middle of the day. Hindwing often with transparant basal patch. Abdomen flattened, often with pale band on dorsum of segment 6.
-
Head rough (but never tips of scales dilated or furcate) or smooth (Fig. 79, 81, 82, 83)
 
 
43 (42)
Second segment of labial palp without tuft and not conspicuously thickened by hair-scales (Fig. 81, 86)
 
-
Second segment of labial palp tufted or conspicuously thickened by hair-scales (Fig. 79, 82, 83)
 
 
44 (43)
Second segment of labial palp with conspicuous lateral and apical projecting bristles (Fig. 86). Forewing shining yellowish, markings absent
Tineidae (part)
 
9.0-16.0 mm. Tineola H.S. with one species: T. bisselliella. Labial palp with third segment obtuse (Fig. 86).
-
Second segment of labial palp without bristles (Fig. 81). Forewing white, whitish or brown, usually with markings
 
10.0-26.0 mm. Scythropia Hb., Yponomeuta Latr., Atemelia H.S., Prays Hb. Larvae of Yponomeuta species gregarious in a dense common web, often defoliating their host plants.
 
45 (43)
Length labial palp three times length of head (Fig. 79)
Oecophoridae (part)
 
15.0-23.0 mm. Pleurota Hb. with one species: P. bicostella.
-
Length labial palp at most two times length of head
 
 
46 (45)
Second segment of labial palp thickened with rough projecting scales above and beneath, but without tuft
Oecophoridae (part)
 
10.5-14.0 mm. Aplota Stph. with one species: A. palpella.
-
Second segment of labial palp not thickened with rough scales, but with large tuft beneath; tuft often longer than third segment (Fig. 82, 83)
 
 
47 (46)
Smaller species: 11.0-16.0 mm
Plutellidae (part)
 
Plutella Schr. with two species. Among these P. xylostella, a notorious migrant.
-
Larger species: 15.5-32.0 mm
Ypsolophidae (part)
 
Ypsolopha Latr. with 12 species, some of them have the forewing strongly falcated.
 
48 (40)
Hindwing with cilia at end of vein 2 relatively short: hardly longer than one-third of greatest width of wing (Fig. 39, 63)
 
Hindwing with apex obtuse or wholly rounded.
-
Hindwing with cilia at end of vein 2 relatively long: distinctly longer than half width of wing (Fig. 87)
 
 
49 (48)
Proboscis rudimentary, but discernible
 
17.0-31.0 mm. (males). Dasystoma Curt. and Diurnea Haw. with one and two species respectively.
-
Proboscis well-developed (Fig. 56)
Oecophoridae (part)
 
13.0-28.0 mm. Luquetia Lert. Levipalpus Hann. Agonopterix Hb., Depressaria Hw. (Fig. 88), Ethmia Hb. Species of the genera Levipalpus, Agonopterix and Depressaria with abdomen flattened.
 
50 (48)
Forewing with dark basal line of cilia indented below apex (Fig. 89)
 
6.0-15.0 mm. Glyphipterix Hb. Forewing dark bronzy, coppery tinged with white costal streaks, occasionally golden metallic with indistinct markings. Day-flying moth frequenting flowers, raising and lowering wings when at rest.
-
Forewing with dark basal line of cilia not indented
 
 
51 (50)
Forewing with termen little oblique: at an angle of approximately 60° to dorsum (Fig. 90)
Plutellidae (part)
 
10.0-16.0 mm. Eidophasia Stph., Digitivalva Gaed, Acrolepiopsis Gaed., Acrolepia Curt.
-
Forewing with termen oblique: at an angle of 30-40° to dorsum (Fig. 43, 93)
 
 
52 (51)
Labial palp slender: second segment not conspicuously thickened with projecting scales (Fig. 91)
Oecophoridae (part)
 
9.0-22.0 mm. Semioscopis Hb., Tubuliferodes Toll, Amphisbatis Zell., Tubuliferola Strd., Borkhausenia Hb., Hofmannophila Spul., Harpella Schr., Metalampra Toll, Alabonia Hb., Oecophora Latr., Batia Stph., Bisigna Toll, Epicallima Dyar, Esperia Hb., Crassa Brd., Schiffermuelleria Hb., Eratophyes Diak., Denisia Hb.
-
Labial palp with second segment conspicuously thickened with projecting scales
 
 
53 (52)
Abdomen with at least tergites 1-6 provided with thorny setae (Fig. 92)
 
13.0-22.0 mm. Blastobasis Zell., Hypatopa Wals. with three and two species respectively. Hindwing with length of cilia near end of vein 2 about equal to greatest width of hindwing (see couplet 22).
-
Abdomen without thorny setae on tergites
 
 
54 (53)
Forewing brown to blackish brown, irregular yellowish fasciae, sometimes more or less reduced (Fig. 93)
 
11.0-16.0 mm. Oegoconia Stt. with three species.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
Gelechiidae (part)
 
12.0-20.0 mm. A considerable fraction of the 152 species.
 
55 (22)
Head above wholly or partly rough-haired or roughly tufted (Fig. 94, 95)
 
The hairs on vertex sometimes rather short.
-
Head above smooth-scaled or with appressed scales (Fig. 37)
 
 
56 (55)
Second segment of labial palp with projecting bristles (Fig. 86, 94)
 
Bristles on second segment of labial palp usually placed laterally, but often also with some apical bristles.
-
Second segment of labial palp without projecting bristles
 
 
57 (56)
Foretibia longer than half of femur. Forewing shining dark bronzy brown with two silvery white transverse fasciae (Fig. 49)
 
6.5-8.5 mm. Phylloporia Hein. with one species: P. bistrigella. Length antenna approximately equal to costa.
-
Length of foretibia not exceeding half of femur (Fig. 96). Forewing marked and coloured otherwise
Tineidae (part)
 
7.0-28.0 mm. Crassicornella Agenjo, Tenaga Clem., Eudarcia Clem., Infurcitinea Spul., Stenoptinea Dietz, Opogona Zell., Oinophila Stph.
 
58 (56)
Hindtibia hairy (Fig. 97)
 
Hairs on hindtibia usually long, sometimes rather short.
-
Hindtibia smooth-scaled (Fig. 98)
 
 
59 (58)
Forewing with whitish, silvery or yellowish costal strigulae (at least in apical area) or fasciae (Fig. 99, 100)
 
5.0-10.0 mm. Phyllonorycter Hb. (with 57 species), Cameraria Chapm. The latter genus with one species, C. ohridella, the notorious leaf-miner on horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanarium). The larvae of Phyllonorycter species make tentiform mines, usually on deciduous trees and shrubs.
-
Forewing from pale ochreous brown to dark brown; sometimes wholly or partly suffused darker, but always without markings, such as strigulae or fasciae
 
 
60 (59)
Scape of antenna with large dense pecten beneath from base to beyond half (because of rough hairs on vertex difficult to see) (Fig. 101)
 
8.0-11.0 mm. One genus, Bedellia Stt., with one species: B. somnulentella. Forewing ochreous, sprinkled blackish except along dorsum.
-
Scape of antenna with a pointed tuft beneath (Fig. 102)
 
6.0-11.0 mm. Two genera, Tischeria Zell. and Emmetia Lert., both with three species.
 
61 (58)
Antenna almost as long as costa forewing
 
9.0-13.0 mm. Two genera: Callisto Stph. and Parornix Spul. with one and nine species respectively.
-
Antenna not exceeding three-quarters of length costa forewing
 
 
62 (61)
Second segment of labial palp with triangular tuft (tuft of equal length as third segment) (Fig. 83) or tuft absent (Fig. 84), but in that case cilia hindwing at end of vein 2 hardly longer than greatest width of wing
Plutellidae (part)
 
10.0-16.0 mm. Plutella Schr., Digitivalva Gaed., Acrolepiopsis Gaed., Acrolepia Curt., together with nine species. Among these Plutella xylostella, the well known migrant and Acrolepiopsis assectella, a pest of leek and onion.
-
Second segment of labial palp without tuft, and cilia hindwing at end of vein 2 at least one and a half times greatest width of wing (Fig. 103)
Yponomeutidae (part)
 
7.0-15.0 mm. Zelleria Stt., Pseudoswammerdamia Frie., Swammerdamia Hb., Paraswammerdamia Frie., Cedestis Zell., Ocnerostoma Zell., Argyresthia Hb. with 37 species.
 
63 (55)
Width hindwing in middle of wing less than one tenth of length costa hindwing (Fig. 104)
 
-
Width hindwing in middle of wing more than one eighth of length costa hindwing (Fig. 105)
 
 
64 (63)
Forewing with silvery-metallic markings
 
8.0-14.0 mm. Cosmopterix Hb. with four species. Coloration and markings of forewing of extreme beauty.
-
Forewing without metallic markings
 
 
65 (64)
Hindwing with conspicuous blackish rings of bristly, projecting hairs situated on tibia and tarsus. Forewing ochreous with three irregular dark greyish-brown fasciae
Oecophoridae (part)
 
10.0-14.0 mm. Stathmopoda H.S. with one species: S. pedella. In rest the hindlegs are carried semi erect.
-
Hindwing without dark rings of bristly hairs on tibia and tarsus. Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
11.0-15.0 mm. One genus, Batrachedra H.S., with two species. B. praeangusta has the forewing whitish, densely irrorated blackish and B. pinicolella ochreous with two sometimes less distinct dark stigmata.
 
66 (63)
Hindtibia with both midspurs of equal length (Fig. 106)
 
10,0-12,0 mm. One genus, Schreckensteinia Hb., with one species: C. festaliella. Costa forewing in basal two-thirds straight, apical third strongly arched. The metallic head relatively small. In rest hindlegs obliquely erected over the back.
-
Hindtibia with midspurs of unequal length (Fig. 107)
 
 
67 (66)
Hindtibia with long bristles, often partly in longitudinal rows (Fig. 108)
 
9.0-14.0 mm. Phaulernis Meyr. with two species and Epermenia Hb. with three species. Species of the latter genus with dorsal scale-teeth on forewing.
-
Hindtibia without long bristles (long hairs may be present) or with very short bristles (shorter than width of hindtibia) (Fig. 107)
 
 
68 (67)
Length of antenna from one-half to two-thirds length of costa forewing
 
-
Length of antenna from three-quarters to equal length of costa (Fig. 111)
 
 
69 (68)
Smaller species: 5.0-9.0 mm
 
Heliozela H.S. and Antispila Hb., both with two species. Forewing dark bronzy with whitish or metallic markings.
-
Larger species: 13.0-22.0 mm
 
17.0-19.0 mm. Blastobasis phycidella Zell. (Fig. 109). The other Dutch species of Blastobasidae may also key out here, because in these species length of cilia hindwing at end of vein 2 is about equal to greatest width hindwing (see couplet 22).
 
70 (68)
Midspurs of hindtibia beyond middle of tibia (Fig. 5, 64)
 
See for exception couplet 76.
-
Midspurs of hindtibia before or in middle of tibia (Fig. 38, 98, 107)
 
 
71 (70)
Forewing with fasciae or spots pale golden metallic or silvery (scales somewhat raised), and reaching costa
 
10.0-16.0 mm. Pancalia Stph. with three species.
-
Forewing without metallic fasciae or spots or, if present, the fascia does not reach costa
 
 
72 (71)
Length of head two times width of head (Fig. 110). Abdomen with paired patches without scales and bearing thorny spines on dorsal surface of abdomen (only fully exposed in Coleophora Hb.)
 
6.5-21.5 mm. Metriotes H.S. (one species), Goniodoma Zell. (one species) and Coleophora Hb. (101 species). Forewing never shows transverse markings (Fig. 111), and few have only a sign of the dark stigmata. The young larva mining, afterwards inhabiting a portable case.
-
Length of head not exceeding width (Fig. 112)
 
 
73 (72)
Forewing with scale tufts on upper surface (Fig. 113); veins 7 and 8 stalked, both to costa (Fig. 114)
Momphidae (part)
 
7.0-20.0 mm. One genus, Mompha Hb., with 13 species; in most species, however, midspurs of hindtibia before or in middle of tibia (see couplets 76 and 82).
-
Forewing without scale tufts on upper surface (Fig. 115); veins 6 and 7 stalked, 6 to termen, 7 to costa (Fig. 116)
 
8.0-18.0 mm. One genus, Scythris Hb., with 13 species.
 
74 (70)
Hindwing with cilia from one to one and a quarter times width of wing near end of vein 2
 
11.0-16.0 mm. Oegoconia Stt. with three species. Forewing brown to blackish brown, yellowish irregular fasciae (Fig. 93), sometimes more or less reduced.
-
Hindwing with cilia at least about two times width of wing near end of vein 2
 
 
75 (74)
Forewing with scale tufts on upper surface (Fig. 113), sometimes indistinct
 
-
Forewing without scale tufts on upper surface
 
 
76 (75)
Forewing with veins 2, 3 and 4 approximately parallel (Fig. 114)
Momphidae (part)
 
7.0-20.0 mm. One genus, Mompha Hb., with 13 species. In some species, however, midspurs of hindtibia beyond middle of tibia (see couplets 73 and 82).
-
In forewing vein 2, 3 and 4 originating from cell close together and diverging towards termen (Fig. 117)
 
9.0-18.0 mm. Chrysoclista Stt. (two species), Heinemannia Wck. (one species), Blastodacna (three species) and Spuleria Hofm. (one species).
 
77 (75)
Hindwing with ill-defined ovate hyaline patch towards base of wing; veins 3 and 4 stalked (Fig. 118)
Oecophoridae (part)
 
8.0-24.5 mm. Only one genus of this family: Endrosis Hb. with one species: E. sarcitrella. Vertex and thorax white. Larvae on seeds, anorganic and vegetable refuse, etc.; often indoors.
-
Hindwing without hyaline patch patch in basal area; veins 3 and 4 parallel (Fig. 119)
 
 
78 (77)
Larger species: 15.0-22.0 mm
 
Limnaecia Stt. with one species: L. phragmitella Stt. Larva in heads of Typha causing the down to hang out in large conspicuous masses.
-
Smaller species: 6.0-12.0 mm
 
 
79 (78)
Maxillary palpus distinct, filiform, porrected, moderately long (Fig. 31). Length of antenna about equal to costa forewing
 
6.5-14.0 mm. Parectopa Clem., Micrurapterix Spul., Caloptilia Hb., Aspilapteryx Spul., Calybites Hb., Euspilapteryx Stph., Povolnya Kuzn., Acrocercops Wall., Dialectica Wals., Spulerina Vári, Leucospilapteryx Spul., Metriochroa Busck. 34 species. Forewing long and narrow: length about four to six times width of wing.
-
Maxillary palpus rudimentary or obsolete. Length of antenna from two-thirds to four-fifth of costa forewing
 
 
80 (79)
Forewing deep orange with leaden metallic, black edged spots and fasciae
 
8.5-11.0 mm. One genus: Heliodines Stt. with one species: H. roesella. Extinct in Northwest Europe. Moth in repose with hindlegs erected over the back.
-
Forewing marked and coloured otherwise
 
 
81 (80)
Length labial palpus longer than head, more or less curved and ascending (Fig. 120)
 
-
Length labial palpus shorter than head, drooping or porrected (Fig. 121)
 
 
82 (81)
Forewing almost unicolorous brownish black with purplish reflections and irregular transverse white spot in disc beyond middle
Momphidae (part)
 
9.0-11.0 mm. Only one species of this family: Mompha langiella. See also couplets 73 and 76.
-
Forewing marked and coloured otherwise
Elachistidae (part)
 
6.0-12.0 mm. Mendesia Joan. (one species), Elachista Tr. (Fig. 122, 35 species), Cosmiotes Clem. (four species). Larvae mining on leaves Gramineae.
 
83 (81)
Labial palpus with third segment obtuse (Fig. 121). Cilia of forewing towards tips with two rows of dark scales (sometimes less distinct)
 
8.0-11.0 mm. Tinagma Zell. with three species. Labial palpus porrected (Fig. 121).
-
Labial palpus with third segment pointed (Fig. 123). Cilia of forewing without rows of dark scales
Elachistidae (part)
 
7.0-10.0 mm. Perittia Stt. and Stephensia Stt., each with one species. Labial palpus drooping.
 

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