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Toelichting

47.5 Pyraustinae (broad sense)

1
Vertex with chaetosema
2
 
-
Vertex without chaetosema
 
 
2 (1)
Proboscis absent or hardly developed
3
 
-
Proboscis well-developed, occasionally short
 
 
3 (2)
Small species, 11.0-18.0mm, female usually with rudimentary wings, but the fully-winged form larger than male. Forewing nearly unicolorous whitish
 
May to September. Forewing thinly scaled, whitish with faint brownish grey tinge and obscurely darker veins. Hindwing white. Females with rudimentary wings remain in the water for their whole life.
-
Larger species, 22.0-46.0mm. Female with normally developed wings. Forewing not unicolorous whitish
4
 
 
4 (3)
Forewing with distinct brown streak from disc to apex
 
21.0-34.0mm. Late May to September. Forewing in male broad with rounded apex, in female elongate and very acute, termen concave; both sexes ochreous yellow with dark brown dots and streaks. See couplets 6, 8 and 9.
-
Forewing without distinct brown streak from disc to apex
5
 
Forewing sometimes with a cloudy brown streak from disc to costa before apex.
 
5 (4)
Forewing with ochreous whitish costal streak from base to apex
6
 
-
Forewing without pale costal streak
7
 
 
6 (5)
Forewing with vein 10 originating from common stalk of veins 8 and 9; without dark brown dots
 
22.0-35.0mm. June to early September. Forewing relatively broad with rounded apex, in female elongate and acute; both sexes ochreous.
-
Forewing with vein 10 originating from cell, veins 8 and 9 stalked; often with dark brown dots.
 
The forms tripartita Dufrane and intermedia Dufrane with pale costal streak on forewing, not rare. See couplets 4, 8 and 9.
 
7 (5)
Males
8
 
-
Females
9
 
 
8 (7)
Hindwing greyish white with postmedian and terminal bands of short, dark streaks
S. gigantella (part, male)
 
25.0-33.0mm. June to early September. Forewing rather broad; apex blunt; grey, ochreous mixed with dark dots and streaks; the form nigristiellus Popescu-Gorj, Olaru & Draghia with long longitudinal line is rare in males. For female see couplet 9.
-
Hindwing white without series of dark streaks
S. forficella (part, male)
 
Form uniformata Dufrane. See couplets 4, 6 and 9.
 
9 (7)
Larger species, 34.0-48.0mm. Forewing with termen slightly convex
S. gigantella (part, female)
 
June to early September. Forewing more elongate; ochreous brown, sometimes almost unmarked, but often with dark dots and streaks; the form nigristiellus Popescu-Gorj et al. (see couplet 8) is common in females.
-
Smaller species, 24.0-34.0mm. Forewing with termen distinctly concave
S. forficella (part, female)
 
Form uniformata Dufrane. See couplets 4, 6 and 8.
 
10 (2)
Hindwing with conspicuous markings. Forewing with vein10 originating from stalk of veins 8 and 9
 
-
Hindwing without markings. Forewing with vein 10 originating from cell, veins 8 and 9 stalked
 
Unlike the species of the Acentropinae referred to in the first alternative of this couplet Elophila nymphaeata, although belonging to the Acentropinae, has the forewing venation of the Scopariinae.
 
11 (10)
Hindwing with conspicuous black band, lying close to termen and containing silvery dots
 
Male 15.0-19.0mm, female 20.0-24.0mm. May to early October. Sexually dimorphic. Forewing male pure white with brown terminal line. Forewing female brown. Dark forms are known, viz. male with forewing pale brown and females with dark brown forewing.
-
Hindwing without black band with silvery dots
 
 
12 (11)
Forewing with white, blackish or brown edged discal spot
 
Male 21.0-26.0mm, female 23.0-30.0mm. May to September. Sexually dimorphic. Male with forewing ochreous white, in female brown.
-
Forewing without discal spot
 
 
13 (12)
Hindwing with discal spot whitish, dark edged, clearly separated from antemedian and postmedian lines
 
20.0-25.0mm. June (elsewhere June to September). Wings white with pattern very similar to E. nymphaeata.
-
Hindwing with discal spot unicolorous dark
 
 
14 (13)
Hindwing with discal spot a small curved line, touching antemedian line
 
16.0-25.0mm. Late May to September. Wings shining white with pattern very similar to Elophila nymphaeata.
-
Hindwing with discal spot kidney-shaped, often united to postmedian band
 
22.0-33.0mm. May to early October. Forewing brownish with three large, white, brown-edged blotches and other pale markings. Hindwing white with broad antemedian and postmedian brown bands. Darkened forms occur rather commonly.
 
15 (10)
Hindwing with two broad brown bands
 
See couplet 10; using the character of the wing venation specimens of E. nymphaeata will key out here. See also couplet 14.
-
Hindwing without two broad dark bands
 
 
16 (15)
Forewing ochreous white to brown or dark brownish grey; first cross-line obsolete or absent
 
-
Forewing more or less suffused greyish, blackish or black; first cross-line present and distinct
 
 
17 (15)
Forewing whitish ochreous; second cross-line slightly sinuate or straight
 
14.0-19.0mm. Late May to August. Forewings with first cross-line and sub-terminal line obscure; orbicular, claviform and discal spot small dot-like or elongate.
-
Forewing dark brownish grey; second cross-line angularly bent above middle
 
This is the form scotica White with darker forewing; markings indistinct or absent. See couplet 22.
 
18 (16)
Forewing with second cross-line strongly sinuate inwards on fold and outwards in disc, indentation at an angle of about 30° to dorsum
 
18.0-20.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing blackish, slightly olive-tinged with white, dark-edged cross-lines; discal mark black, x-shaped, claviform spot black, dot-like and orbicular pale, outlined black. Hindwing with greyish discal mark.
-
Forewing with second cross-line less strongly sinuate, indentation at an angle of 60°-90° to dorsum
 
 
19 (18)
Forewing with discal spot absorbed in black quadrate costal blotch at two-thirds. Hindwing with dark discal marks, more distinct on underside
 
15.0-19.0mm. June to early August. Forewing whitish, sometimes darker, with brownish black markings; cross-lines white, dark edged; orbicular and claviform spots absorbed in blackish irroration distal to first cross-line.
-
Forewing with discal spot separate, not absorbed in dark costal blotch. Hindwing without dark discal mark
 
 
20 (19)
Forewing with orbicular spot light-centred (pale grey, ochreous or pale brown), more or less completely ringed dark brown, blackish or black
 
-
Forewing with orbicular spot represented by a blackish dot or streak, not light-centred
 
 
21 (20)
Forewing with dark edging of discal mark 8-shaped, orbicular spot round
 
16.0-22.0mm. May to early August. Forewing with basal and median area predominantly white; first and second cross-line white, black-edged towards the median area; dark brown colour sometimes reduced, occasionally the wing is pure white, also the dark markings may form to two fasciae.
-
Forewing with dark edging of discal mark x-shaped, occasionally tending towards an 8-shape; orbicular spot oval or elongate
 
 
22 (21)
Forewing with sub-terminal cross-line indistinct or absent
S. subfusca (part)
 
16.5-25.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing rather uniform pale grey, slightly brownish tinged; cross-lines whitish, dark-edged inwardly, first curved, second angularly bent above middle; orbicular spot indistinctly outlined dark, claviform spot blackish, not pale-centred, discal mark less distinct, weakly outlined, sometimes tending towards an 8-shape. Dark forms are known. See couplet 17.
-
Forewing with sub-terminal cross-line distinct
 
 
23 (22)
Forewing broad, length costa about 2.5 times width at three-quarters; terminal cilia conspicuously barred white and black
 
21.0-25.0mm. June to early August. Forewing heavily irrorated blackish; first cross-line zigzagging, second sinuate above middle. There is little variation, forms with darker and also paler median space are known, the latter named f. bifascialis Turati.
-
Forewing narrow, length costa about 3 times width wing at three quarters, terminal cilia indistinctly barred basally
 
17.0-23.0mm. Early May to early September. Forewing whitish, sprinkled grey; first cross-line zigzagging, second strongly angulated above middle. Very variable. Dark forms are described, viz. a dark and smaller form with clear pale markings (f. atomalis Stainton); a form with forewing in basal and terminal areas darkened with pale median area (f. klinkowstromi Hamfelt) and the reverse, a form with dark median area and pale basal and terminal areas (f. crossi Bankes); extreme dark specimens are known nearly without pale markings. Also a pale form is known with strongly reduced dark markings (f. octavianella Mann).
 
24 (20)
Forewing with costal third of second cross-line, if extended with an imaginary line, reaching to middle of termen. Generally larger species, 18.0-20.0mm
 
Late June to early October. Forewing with blackish tinge predominantly, particularly in fresh specimens; cross-lines whitish, dark-edged, first zigzagging, second angulate-sinuate; spots black; there is little variation, occasionally the median area is distinctly darker.
-
Forewing with costal third of second cross-line, if extended with an imaginary line, reaching termen near dorsum. Generally smaller species, 16.0-20.0mm
 
 
25 (24)
Forewing with white sub-terminal cross-line interrupted near middle and diverted into tornus by black clouding; second cross-line weakly curved above middle. Hindwing whitish grey, darker near termen
 
16.0-20.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing whitish, sprinkled blackish, basal and terminal areas dark; first cross-line zigzagging; both spots dot-like, black; specimens with dark median area are common, occasionally forewing strongly tinged ochreous.
-
Forewing with white sub-terminal cross-line not interrupted near middle; second cross-line in costal third indentated. Hindwing pale grey, brownish grey in distal half
 
16.0-20.0mm. June to early September. Forewing grey, suffused blackish; first cross-line followed by a broad blackish band; cross-lines white, dark-edged, first curved, second fine; both spots dot-like, black, usually absorbed in the blackish band. Rather variable species; darker specimens are common; also paler specimens occur, e.g. f. portlandica Curtis with pale basal area.
 
26 (1)
Forewing with vein10 originating from common stalk of veins 8 and 9
 
-
Forewing with vein 10 originating from cell, veins 8 and 9 stalked
 
 
27 (26)
Labial palp ascending, about 45° and more
 
-
Labial palp porrected or only slightly ascending
 
 
28 (27)
Forewing pure white with blackish brown spots and costal streak. Larger species, 27.0-35.0mm
 
May to early September (also records from February, March, April and November). Frons, vertex and thorax deep ochreous yellow, black spotted. Hindwing similar to forewing. Forewing with reduction of the dark markings occurs, also darkened specimens are found.
-
Forewing dark greyish brown with two whitish cross-lines. Smaller species, 14.5-20.0mm
 
Abroad April to November.
 
29 (27)
Forewing brown. Antenna almost reaching to apex of forewing. Generally smaller species, 13.0-22.0mm
 
July (abroad in this part of Europe also August). Forewing dark brown; both cross-lines present, discal spot white, crescentic. Legs very long.
-
Forewing yellow, pale ochreous or pale ferruginous ochreous. Generally larger species, 19.0-34.0mm
 
 
30 (29)
Forewing with terminal area greyish brown; second cross-line heavily serrated. Hindwing similar
 
Male 26.0-34.0mm, female 24.0-30.0mm. Late May to August. Sexually dimorphic. Forewing of male much longer and termen distinctly more oblique than in female; male with outer middle-spur rudimentary.
-
Forewing with terminal area yellow or pale ferruginous ochreous; second cross-line not or hardly serrated. Hindwing similar
 
Male with outer middle-spur developed.
 
31 (30)
Forewing glossy pale yellow, suffused greyish or orange along costa. Larger species, 27.0-34.0mm
 
July and August. Forewing with first and second cross-line and sub-terminal line rather distinct, brown. Reminiscent of Paracorsa repandalis (see couplet 79)
-
Forewing pale ochreous, wholly irrorate ferruginous. Smaller species, 19.0-27.0mm
 
July and August. Forewing with first cross-line indistinct, second fine and sub-terminal line obscure, all brownish.
 
32 (26)
Frons with well-developed cone, projecting by more than two-fifth of eye-diameter.
 
-
Frons without well-developed cone, at most slightly prominent
 
 
33 (32)
Forewing unicolorous deep ochreous brown with obscurely paler veins and a narrow pure white costal streak; also terminal cilia pure white
 
23.0-25.0mm. Late May to early July. Hindwing pale yellowish brown.
-
Forewing dark brown or yellowish without pale costal streak; terminal cilia yellowish, pale ochreous or dark brown
 
 
34 (33)
Forewing dark greyish brown with paler markings
 
21.0-27.0mm. May, July to September.
-
Forewing yellowish without markings or with darker markings only
 
 
35 (34)
Forewing unicolorous pale yellowish without markings, veins variably dark-scaled
 
26.0-36.0mm. Late June to early September. Hindwing shining white, occasionally with incomplete greyish postmedian band.
-
Forewing pale yellowish orange with markings slightly darker
 
22.0-32.0mm. Late May to early August. Hindwing pale yellowish without cross-lines.
 
36 (32)
Fore- and hindwing with ground colour shining translucent white
 
-
Fore- and hindwing not with shining translucent white ground colour
 
 
37 (36)
Forewing uniformly white, only with narrow ochreous costal streak
 
27.0-33.0mm. July to late October.
-
Forewing white with broad brown band extending along costa and termen; conspicuous white lunate discal stigma in costal band
 
50.0mm. Mid June to September.
 
38 (36)
Forewing with large scale-tuft at one-third of dorsum; markings produce a highly characteristic fan-like pattern
 
21.0-31.0mm. Late June to early September.
-
Forewing without dorsal scale-tuft; markings not producing an fan-like pattern
 
 
39 (38)
Labial palp ascending nearly vertically (not less than 60°)
 
-
Labial palp porrected or ascending to less than 60°
 
 
40 (39)
Forewing with termen strongly curved inwards below apex
 
20.0-23.0mm. May to early July. Forewing with basal area yellow, rest of wing ochreous brown; terminal cilia pure white with blackish blotches. Hindwing greyish white with two dark lines.
-
Forewing with termen not or weakly curved inwards below apex
 
 
41 (40)
Smaller species, 22.0-24.0mm. Labial palp with third segment long, about two-thirds length of second
 
August to October. Forewing deep brown with broad white incomplete median fascia and a subapical white costal bar. Hindwing deep brown with broad white median fascia.
-
Larger species, 30.0-40.0mm. Labial palp with third segment short, about one-quarter length of second
 
June to October. Forewing whitish ochreous, yellowish tinged; with grey lines and spots. Hindwing similar.
 
42 (39)
Maxillary palp comparatively long, as long as second segment of labial palp
 
-
Maxillary palp shorter than second segment of labial palp
 
 
43 (42)
Smaller species, 17.0-21.5mm. Wings with terminal area dark brown, sharply contrasting with rest of wing
 
June to early August, partial second generation second half of August. Forewing yellowish; two narrow brownish cross-lines, between second and termen forewing brown. Hindwing also yellowish with broad brown band along termen.
-
Larger species, 21.0-27.0mm. Wings without contrasting dark terminal area
 
 
44 (43)
Forewing with both dark cross-lines complete
 
21.0-25.0mm. June to early October. Forewing pale glossy yellowish; cross-lines, outlines of stigmata and veins (posteriorly) brown. Hindwing yellowish white with traces of dark postmedian line.
-
Forewing with cross-lines incomplete or absent
 
21.0-27.0mm. Late May to early October. Forewing pale ochreous yellow; cross-lines faintly indicated. Hindwing yellowish white with brownish marks along termen.
 
45 (42)
Maxillary palp distinctly triangularly dilated with scales towards apex
 
-
Maxillary palp filiform or slightly dilated with scales at apex, but not triangularly
 
 
46 (45)
Hindwing with terminal area blackish brown, contrasting with the orange-yellow colour of rest of wing
 
26.0-37.0mm. August to October. Forewing ochreous brown. Terminal border hindwing sometimes interrupted. Male with tibia midleg dilated.
-
Hindwing not orange-yellow with contrasting dark border
 
22.0-30.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing pale ochreous with conspicuous brown cross-line from apex to middle of dorsum and two brown transversely placed discal spots. Hindwing whitish with greyish postmedian cross-line. Male with tibia midleg not enlarged.
 
47 (45)
Hindwing unicolorous blackish brown with one or two white or yellowish, roundish or oval spots or with one white spot and a short streak, without further markings
 
-
Hindwing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
48 (47)
Smaller species, 11.0-15.0mm. Hindwing with one yellowish spot
 
May to early September. Forewing with a more or less distinct yellowish costal spot at two-thirds.
-
Larger species, 15.0-23.0mm. Hindwing with two white spots or with one white spot and a short streak
 
 
49 (48)
Hindwing with two white spots
 
Late May to early July. Forewing with two white spots, sometimes also a small white point above first spot.
-
Hindwing with one white spot and a short streak
 
15.0-21.0mm. May to early August. Forewing with two white spots in distal two-thirds and in basal area two small white streaks.
 
50 (47)
Hindwing with termen beneath apex distinctly sinuate. Forewing brown with a complex pattern of shining white and ochreous markings
 
-
Hindwing with termen beneath apex not or slightly sinuate. Forewing with markings otherwise
 
 
51 (50)
Forewing with second cross-line parallel to termen from costa at three-quarters to middle of wing, then bending abruptly towards tornus
 
17.0-22.0mm. June to August. Hindwing near base without white cross-line.
-
Forewing with second cross-line parallel to termen from costa at three-quarters to middle of wing, then obsolescent or absent
 
16.0-22.0mm. June to October. Hindwing near base with well-defined white cross-line.
 
52 (50)
Forewing unicolorous blackish brown or dark brown with a few distinct white or pale yellow markings only
 
Markings of forewing consist of two spots and two streaks or of a fascia (sometimes incomplete) often with one or two spots; forewing sometimes with numerous whitish scales.
-
Forewing paler coloured and usually with a more complex pattern of markings
 
 
53 (52)
Forewing with one white or pale yellow fascia only
 
-
Forewing with one white or whitish fascia (sometimes interrupted or incomplete) and additional pale markings
 
 
54 (53)
Smaller species, 10.0-14.0mm
 
May to August.
-
Larger species, 14.0-19.0mm
 
May to August.
 
55 (53)
Smaller species, 13.0-18.0mm. Forewing with additional marking consisting of narrow line from basal part of dorsum midway to costa
 
May to August.
-
Larger species, 22.0-24.0mm. Forewing with additional marking consisting of subapical costal bar
 
August to October. See couplet 41.
 
56 (52)
Forewing extremely elongate and narrow, length costa at least three times width of wing at two-thirds
 
20.0-33.3mm. April to November. Forewing brown with ill-defined cross-lines, indistinct dark median streak and two large 8-shaped darker blackish-edged spots.
-
Forewing comparatively broad, length costa at most two and a half times width of wing at two-thirds
 
 
57 (56)
Forewing ochreous yellow with purplish red markings
 
12.0-18.0mm. Mid May to mid July (in Denmark). Forewing with costa to two-thirds, median fascia and termen purplish red. Hindwing grey.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
58 (57)
Generally smaller species, 14.0-21.0mm. Forewing deep brown or purplish brown, occasionally greyish brown; with yellow or yellowish white markings
 
Forewing occasionally with pale markings obscure or absent. Hindwing with at least postmedian fascia visible, usually incomplete.
-
Generally larger species, 18.0-37.0mm. Forewing pale coloured with dark suffusion or with a pattern of darker markings
 
Sometimes forewing with a dense pattern of dark markings or dark suffusion, giving it a dark appearance; predominating colour: ferruginous, reddish ochreous, yellowish ochreous or pure grey, sometimes however dark brown (see couplet 67, reddish or blackish brown (larger species, 26.0-31.0mm).
 
59 (58)
Hindwing with one pale fascia without additional pale markings
 
-
Hindwing with one or two pale fasciae and one or more additional pale markings
 
 
60 (59)
Underside wings predominantly dark brown with pure yellow markings
 
15.0-20.0mm. Late April to late September. Forewing deep purplish brown; with yellow spots and without plumbeous grey fascia half-way. Hindwing with fascia often not reaching to margins.
-
Underside wings predominantly pale ochreous yellow with brown markings
 
15.0-18.0mm. May to August. Forewing dirty purplish brown; with yellow markings and with plumbeous grey fascia from half-way dorsum towards costa. Hindwing with fascia usually reaching to costa. See couplet 62.
 
61 (59)
Forewing brown without purplish tinge, but often with an olive or greyish shade; pale markings usually obsolete or ill-defined, occasionally absent
 
14.0-21.0mm. April to September. A variable species in coloration and markings of forewing.
-
Forewing purplish brown without olive or greyish tinge and with at least part of the pale markings well-defined
 
 
62 (61)
Forewing dirty purplish brown with plumbeous grey fascia from half-way dorsum towards costa
 
See couplet 60.
-
Forewing deep purplish brown or dull dark purplish brown, with yellow markings
 
 
63 (62)
On underside forewing pale sub-terminal cross-line parallel to costa, nearly straight, fading before costa at about four-fifth of its length
 
14.5-20.0mm. May to early September. Forewing brownish purple with bright yellow markings. Underside forewing with pale discal and postdiscal spots well-defined costally.
-
On underside forewing pale sub-terminal cross-line curving rather abruptly inwards at about five-sixth of its length, often reaching to paler subapical costal spot
 
14.5-18.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing comparatively dull dark brownish purple with ochreous yellow markings. Underside forewing with pale discal and postdiscal spots, often confluent with broad pale costal streak.
 
64 (58)
Forewing yellowish, at least veins costa and termen suffused ferruginous
 
Forewing with cross-lines faint or obsolete.
-
Forewing not yellowish with ferruginous veins
 
 
65 (64)
Generally smaller species, 15.0-22.0mm. Hindwing with small dark discal spot and cloudy grey postmedian costal spot
 
August to October. Forewing pale yellow with veins and margins suffused ferruginous, this suffusion sometimes so heavy as to obscure pale ground-colour; cross-lines fine, faint, ferruginous. Hindwing yellowish white. Antenna about four-fifth length costa forewing.
-
Generally larger species, 20.0-24.0mm. Hindwing without dark spots
 
Early June to early August. Forewing yellowish orange; veins, costa and termen ferruginous; cross-lines obsolescent. Hindwing greyish white, slightly yellowish-tinged. Antenna about two-thirds length costa forewing.
 
66 (64)
Forewing and hindwing with colour and markings similar
 
Both wings deep yellow or pale yellow, usually with a complex pattern of brown blotches and spots, often partly suffused dark brown.
-
Markings and usually also colour of fore- and hindwing differ markedly
 
 
67 (66)
Forewing deep ochreous yellow, slightly suffused brown
 
19.0-26.0mm. June to August. Forewing with two or three dark brown cross-lines.
-
Forewing pale yellow with brownish markings, often heavily suffused dark brownish
 
 
68 (82)
Forewing with pale spots distal to second transverse line confluent near costa; between interstigmatal patch and tornus another pale patch (sometimes two patches), triangular in shape
 
21.0-27.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing dark brown with yellowish white blotches.
-
Forewing with pale spots distal to second transverse line distinct; pale patch between interstigmatal patch and tornus absent
 
19.0-22.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing rather blunt and short, blackish brown with yellowish white blotches.
 
69 (66)
Forewing with quadrate white spot in middle of disc
 
21.0-27.0mm. May to early August. Forewing dull greyish olive with white spots.
-
Forewing without quadrate white spot in middle of disc
 
 
70 (69)
Hindwing white with dark grey apical blotch
 
21.0-26.0mm. Late June to late August. Forewing pale whitish ochreous; the spots brown, outlined ochreous; cross-lines fine, brown. Hindwing with faint dark second cross-line.
-
Hindwing otherwise
 
 
71 (70)
Forewing with grey cilia, contrasting with yellowish colour of wing; three stigmata: round orbicular, oblong discal and round spot below orbicular
 
21.0-29.0mm. Late July and August. Forewing yellowish; markings grey, sometimes faint.
-
Forewing not with grey cilia, cilia not contrasting with pale colour of wing; two stigmata
 
 
72 (71)
Forewing with discal stigma lunate, conspicuous; termen with series of brownish neural spots, sometimes indistinct
 
20.0-25.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing whitish with markings usually weak, except discal stigma.
-
Forewing with discal stigma not lunate; termen with neural spots absent or indistinct
 
 
73 (72)
Forewing with second cross-line not dentate or serrate; discal stigma linear, approximately in line with dorsal part of second cross-line
 
19.0-24.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing from whitish yellow to ochreous yellow; three brownish rather narrow cross-lines, the second forming a strong outward curve around discal stigma. Hindwing greyish white with fine reddish brown terminal line.
-
Forewing with second cross-line more or less dentate or serrate; discal stigma roundish or oblong
 
 
74 (73)
Forewing reddish ochreous, suffused dark reddish brown
 
18.0-22.0mm. Late May to mid November. Forewing with discal spot 8-shaped; cross-lines blackish. Hindwing pale grey; postmedian line and two minute discal dots darker.
-
Forewing whitish yellow to dark brownish grey, not reddish ochreous
 
18.0-37.0mm. Male of Ostrinia nubilalis with forewing often heavily suffused reddish brown, but pale yellowish ground colour visible and distinctly larger than Udea ferrugalis: 26.0-31.0mm.
 
75 (74)
Forewing underside with distinct blackish costal spots in apical half
 
-
Forewing underside without or with obsolete dark costal spots in apical half or dark suffusion in costal area
 
 
76 (75)
Forewing predominantly grey, somewhat brownish
 
18.0-27.0mm. Mid June to mid August. Forewing with cross-lines, orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot blackish grey. Hindwing dark bronish grey, apex darker; ill-defined postmedian line and two discal dots blackish brown.
-
Forewing yellowish brown
 
21.0-28.0mm. July. Forewing with cross-lines and stigmata grey, similar to U. prunalis. Hindwing brown, apex darker; often only with traces of darker postmedian line and small discal dot.
 
77 (75)
Forewing pale yellowish without dark suffusion
 
-
Forewing pale yellowish (with dark suffusion), pale greyish or dark brown
 
 
78 (77)
Hindwing with postmedian dark cross-line serrate, slightly curved near middle of wing or almost straight
Ostrinia nubilalis (part, female)
 
26.0-37.0mm. Late May to mid September. Forewing with cross-lines, orbicular and discal streak brownish. Hindwing with basal two-thirds usually dark grey. See couplet 80 for male.
-
Hindwing with postmedian cross-line not serrate, curved outwardly near middle of wing round discal streak
 
 
79 (78)
Forewing with dark second cross-line strongly curving from vein 2 towards tornus; narrow discal stigma touching dark subterminal cross-line
 
24.0-28.0mm. May to August (in Germany). Forewing with distinct brown markings. Hindwing whitish with distinct greyish postmedian and subterminal lines.
-
Forewing with second cross-line almost parallel to termen, not curved outwardly in terminal area; discal stigma not touching dark subterminal cross-line
 
22.0-28.0mm. May to early July. Forewing with rather obscure greyish markings. Hindwing yellowish white with greyish postmedian and subterminal lines.
 
80 (77)
Forewing pale yellowish, heavily suffused reddish brown or blackish brown. Hindwing with basal and distal part usually dark greyish brown, leaving only a yellowish white postmedian fascia or spot
Ostrinia nubilalis (part, male)
 
26.0-31.0mm. Late May to mid September. Forewing with cross-lines, orbicular stigma and linear discal mark slightly darker than dark suffusion. See for female couplet 78.
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Forewing brown or pale grey. Hindwing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
81 (80)
Forewing pale grey; second cross-line deeply sinuate below middle; termen almost perpendicular to dorsum. Antenna three-fifth length costa forewing
 
18.0-28.0mm. Late April to mid July. Forewing with cross-lines, orbicular dot and transverse discal mark faint, grey. Hindwing grey with dark postmedian line and faint discal spot.
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Forewing brown, darker towards termen; second cross-line slightly sinuate below middle; termen with an obtuse angle (120°) to dorsum. Antenna four-fifth length costa forewing
 
22.0-29.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing with dark cross-lines narrow and indistinct, second line pale-edged outwardly; orbicular dot and linear discal mark faint. Hindwing brown, darker towards termen; faint postmedian line, line near base and often obsolete discal dots dark brown.
 

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