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Toelichting

47.4 Crambinae

1
Forewing with silvery white, white or yellowish white basal stripe, sometimes interrupted by one or two dark cross-bars
2
 
Basal stripe in forewing usually distinct (see for instance couplet 15); exceptionally very narrow or not contrasting with ground colour; also exceptionally a broad contrasting pale costa occurs which can not be considered a basal stripe (see couplet 45).
-
Forewing without such stripe
 
 
2 (1)
Forewing without a trace of dark cross-lines
3
 
-
Forewing with one or two dark cross-lines, sometimes incomplete or less distinct
 
 
3 (2)
Forewing with basal stripe interrupted by one or two dark cross-bars
4
 
-
Forewing with basal stripe entire
8
 
 
4 (3)
Forewing with basal stripe once interrupted by dark bar
 
19.0-26.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing ferruginous ochre with a shining white basal stripe to five-sixth.
-
Forewing with basal stripe twice interrupted by dark bars
5
 
21.0-28.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing ferruginous ochre with shining white basal streak to near termen. Two species which cannot be reliably separated using external characters. However, discriminating genitalic characters of both sexes can be inspected without dissection.
 
5 (4)
Male
6
 
-
Female
7
 
 
6 (5)
Valva with costal process slender recurved and of same length as valva
C. osthelderi (part, male)
 
23.0-28.0mm. June to mid August. See couplet 7.
-
Valva with costal process tapered, apex slightly bent upward, markedly shorter than valva
C. permutatella (part, male)
 
21.0-28.0mm. Late May to mid August. See couplet 7.
 
7 (5)
Eighth abdominal tergite with distinct indentation posteriorly
C. osthelderi (part, female)
 
See couplet 6.
-
Eighth abdominal tergite not distinctly indented posteriorly
C. permutatella (part, female)
 
See couplet 6.
 
8 (3)
Forewing with basal stripe broadened towards apex
 
17.0-23.0mm. Late June to late August. Forewing ferruginous brown, somewhat paler dorsally with a shining white, gradually dilating basal stripe to near termen, broadest at four-fifth.
-
Forewing with basal stripe not broadened towards apex, sometimes even narrower
9
 
 
9 (8)
Forewing with basal stripe dentated posteriorly; basal half of dorsum white
 
22.0-29.0mm. Late July to early September. Forewing dark reddish brown with snow-white basal stripe, extending to termen.
-
Forewing with basal stripe not dentated posteriorly; basal half of dorsum concolorous with ground colour
 
 
10 (9)
Forewing with basal stripe evenly broad, extending to termen, usually continued on fringe
 
22.0-28.0mm. Late July to early September. Forewing dark reddish brown with shining white basal stripe.
-
Forewing with narrow basal stripe evenly broad or narrower towards apex, not extended to termen, but terminating in some fine white or yellowish streaks on veins
 
 
11 (10)
Frons without well-developed cone, only slightly prominent
A. selasella (part)
 
21.0-27.0mm. Early July to early September. Forewing pale ochreous to ochreous yellow with basal stripe shining white, reaching to about four-fifth, terminating in some fine whitish streaks on veins.
-
Frons with well-developed cone, projecting by more than two-fifth of eye-diameter.
 
 
12 (11)
Frons with cone projecting by about eye-diameter
A. deliella (part)
 
24.0-29.0mm. Late July to mid September. Forewing pale ochreous yellow with basal stripe whitish (sometimes indistinct), terminating in fine whitish streaks on veins. See couplet 44.
-
Frons with cone projecting by about half of eye-diameter
A. tristella (part)
 
22.0-31.0mm. Mid June to mid September. Forewing from pale ochreous to dark brown with basal stripe white or yellowish (often indistinct or absent), terminating in pale streaks on veins. See couplets 21, 40 and 46.
 
13 (2)
Forewing with basal stripe touching costa, at least near base or approaching costa near base
 
Forewing with basal stripe weakly tapered towards base.
-
Forewing with basal stripe clearly away from costa
 
Forewing with basal stripe generally strongly tapered towards base.
 
14 (13)
Forewing with basal stripe not interrupted by dark cross-bar
 
17.0-26.0mm. Late July to early October. Forewing brown with snow-white; basal stripe not reaching sub-terminal cross-line, lower edge with tooth in middle. Frons and vertex brown.
-
Forewing with basal stripe interrupted by dark cross-bar at two-thirds to three-fourth
 
 
15 (14)
Hindwing grey. Forewing with basal stripe diverging from costa already at one-sixth
 
20.0-26.0mm. Mid July to early September. Forewing with termen almost straight; apex hardly or not produced;ochreous brown; basal stripe shining white, posterior edge without tooth, width of basal stripe half-way wing less than one-third width of wing. Frons and vertex from yellowish to pale greyish brown.
-
Hindwing white, at least to two-thirds. Forewing with basal stripe diverging from costa from one-third or beyond
 
 
16 (15)
Forewing with basal stripe diverging from costa from beyond one-half rather abruptly; termen almost straight, apex not or hardly produced
 
18.0-23.0mm. Mid June to mid August. Forewing ochreous yellow; basal stripe white, sometimes with yellowish longitudinal streak, posterior edge occasionally with small tooth, width basal stripe half-way wing about half width of wing. Frons and vertex pure white. Hindwing white, less often darkened in apical third.
-
Forewing with basal stripe diverging very gradually from costa from about one-third; termen notched in apical third; apex triangularly produced, sometimes less pronounced
 
20.0-26.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing ochreous brown; basal stripe shining white, posterior edge without tooth; very occasionally nearly unicolorous dark brown with markings hardly or not discernible. Hindwing whitish, greyish in apical third. Frons and vertex white, occasionally brownish.
 
17 (13)
Forewing with second white basal stripe along costa on basal half
 
Forewing with both basal stripes sometimes more or less confluent.
-
Forewing without second white basal stripe along costa
 
 
18 (17)
Forewing with median basal stripe broadest at about half-way, then tapering and terminating in a long sharp point; termen nearly straight
 
17.0-24.0mm. Early May to early August. Forewing of male pale yellow to dark brown, forewing of female whitish, both sexes with white median basal stripe; whitish subcostal median line at least half-way along wing (sometimes obliterated). See couplet 31.
-
Forewing with median basal stripe broadest at three-quarters, rather abruptly terminating in a short point; termen with notch in apical third, apex distinctly produced
C. pratella (part)
 
20.0-25.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing ochreous brown with shining white median basal stripe; white subcostal median line extending nearly half-way along wing. See couplet 31.
 
19 (17)
Forewing with posterior edge of basal stripe with tooth
 
-
Forewing with posterior edge of basal stripe without tooth
 
 
20 (19)
Forewing with apex strongly triangularly produced; basal stripe extended to termen (interrupted by sub-terminal cross-line) and continued on fringe
 
18.0-22.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing brown with darker band along costa, extending into apical projection; basal stripe white.
-
Forewing with apex not produced; basal stripe to three-fifth
 
16.0-23.0mm. Mid June to mid September. Forewing whitish, irregularly tinged brown and irrorated blackish; basal stripe shining white.
 
21 (19)
Frons rounded, without cone. Forewing with ground colour brown with golden gloss; sub-terminal cross-line shining white
 
20.0-27.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with basal stripe shining white.
-
Frons with well-developed cone. Forewing with ground colour ochreous to dark brown without golden gloss; sub-terminal cross-line reduced to dark scaling
 
See couplets 12, 40 and 46.
 
22 (1)
Frons rounded, without cone
 
-
Frons with cone
 
 
23 (22)
Forewing without cross-lines or black dots
 
Forewing occasionally white with silvery sub-terminal cross-line; for blackish brown or dark brown specimens see couplet 36.
-
Forewing with one or two cross-lines, sometimes only black dots
 
 
24 (23)
Forewing pearly whitish, sometimes ochreous tinged, veins and dorsal area often more or less suffused grey
 
19.0-29.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with cilia glossy whitish, not metallic.
-
Forewing from pale straw-coloured to brown, not shining and not suffused grey
 
16.0-23.0mm. Mid June to mid September. Cilia of both wings metallic.
 
25 (23)
Forewing with cilia metallic
 
-
Forewing with cilia not metallic
 
 
26 (25)
Forewing with median and sub-terminal cross-lines present, sometimes indistinct
 
-
Forewing with median cross-line absent
 
 
27 (26)
Forewing with sub-terminal cross-line acutely angulated or right-angled
 
-
Forewing with sub-terminal cross-line obtuse-angled or rounded
 
 
28 (27)
Forewing with median cross-line thickened in cell to form an oblong dark dash
 
15.0-24.0mm. Late July to early September. Forewing ashy greyish brown with acutely angulated well-developed cross-lines.
-
Forewing with median cross-line not forming a dark dash in cell
 
Male 12.0-17.0mm, female 10.0-14.0mm. Late May to late July. Pronounced sexual dimorphism: male with forewing ochreous brown to greyish brown, female whitish with indistinct cross-lines.
 
29 (27)
Forewing with scattered large black scales
 
21.0-27.0mm. Early May to early July. Forewing greyish brown, veins and costa with undefined white streaks; sub-terminal cross-line obtuse-angled.
-
Forewing without scattered large black scales
 
Forewing with two cross-lines occurring in specimens with pale brown forewings; sub-terminal cross-line obtuse-angled. See couplet 32.
 
30 (26)
Forewing pure white with silvery subterminal cross-line
 
-
Forewing from pale brown to dark brown, subterminal cross-line not silvery
 
 
31 (30)
Forewing with notch on termen; apex produced
 
Form with white forewing. See couplet 18.
-
Forewing with termen nearly straight
 
Form with white forewing. See couplet 18.
 
32 (30)
Forewing with sub-terminal cross-line preceded by an oblique white wedge-shaped mark near dorsum
 
16.0-21.0mm. Late June to mid August. Forewing pale brown suffused blackish except on veins and towards costa. See couplet 35.
-
Forewing with sub-terminal cross-line not preceded by a white wedge
 
18.0-25.0mm. Early May to early October, once in eraly November. Forewing from pale brown to dark brown; in dark forms the veins remain pale. See couplet 29.
 
33 (25)
Forewing comparatively broad, length costa three times greatest width wing or less. Hindwing shining white
 
24.0-33.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing whitish to pale brown with black dots; cilia usually barred brown and pale ochreous.
-
Forewing comparatively narrow, length costa three and a quarter times greatest width wing or more. Hindwing brownish white or pale grey
 
 
34 (33)
Forewing with cilia barred
 
-
Forewing with cilia unicolorous
 
 
35 (34)
Forewing with cilia regularly barred white and brown, more than five white bars. Larger species, 22.0-30.0mm
 
Late May to early September. Forewing pale ochreous with ill-defined blackish brown streaks, veins whitish.
-
Forewing with cilia irregularly barred white and grey, less than five white bars. Smaller species, 16.0-21.0mm
 
See couplet 32.
 
36 (34)
Forewing ochreous with blackish markings consisting of two often indistinct cross-lines (the sub-terminal toothed at nearly each vein) and usually a median longitudinal streak from basal area to about half-way
 
19.0-29.0mm. Mid June to mid September.
-
Forewing with blackish markings only consisting of two cross-lines (the sub-terminal hardly or not toothed, indented near tornus); black markings well visible in paler forms (ochreous or brown), but indistinct or invisible in blackish brown specimens; such dark forms do not occur in P. aridella
 
19.5-27.0mm. Late June to early October.
 
37 (22)
Forewing with one or two cross-lines, well-developed or reduced
 
-
Forewing without cross-lines
 
 
38 (37)
Forewing with terminal white patch near tornus containing a series of golden metallic spots, preceded by black dots
 
16.0-27.0mm. In the British Isles recorded in nearly every month of the year. A species with characteristic appearance. Forewing pale ochreous brown, finely strigulated silver, with two rather broad transverse streaks and a sub-terminal cross-line.
-
Forewing without terminal white patch containing metallic spots and black dots
 
 
39 (38)
Forewing broad, length costa less than three times greatest width wing; median cross-line absent; with pale sub-terminal cross-line occasionally indistinct, but the preceding series of black interneural dots always present, sometimes faint
 
21.0-25.0mm. Late June to late August. Pronounced sexual dimorphism (see couplet 45). Forewing pale ochreous to dark brown with two blackish brown longitudinal streaks, the latter hardly or not discernible in dark specimens.
-
Forewing narrow, length costa more than three and a half times greatest width wing; dark median cross-line often present; dark sub-terminal line present, but often indistinct or rudimentary
 
 
40 (39)
Forewing with dark median cross-line usually present, forming a short dark longitudinal dash in cell; sub-terminal dark cross-line at an angle of 30° to dorsum
 
21.0-29.0mm. Late June to mid September. Forewing usually pale ochreous yellow, variably suffused darker. See couplet 43.
-
Forewing with dark median cross-line occasionally present, dark dash in cell always absent; sub-terminal cross-line at an angle of 45° to dorsum, both lines rather indistinct
A. tristella (part)
 
Forewing from pale ochreous to dark brown. See couplets 12, 21 and 46.
 
41 (37)
Forewing pale coloured: pale yellowish, ochreous yellow, sometimes greyish tinged or brown
 
-
Forewing dark coloured: dark brown to blackish brown
 
 
42 (41)
Labial palp about five times eye-diameter
 
Male 25.0-33.0mm, female 28.0-43.0mm. Mid May to mid September. Pronounced sexual dimorphism. Forewing in male rather broad, brownish; termen right-angled to costa; in female much narrower, pale ochreous yellow with reduced markings (occasionally absent); termen with acute angle to costa.
-
Labial palp less than four and a half times eye-diameter
 
 
43 (42)
Forewing unicolorous pale yellowish, not glossy; cilia shining dark grey
 
See also couplet 40.
-
Forewing pale ochreous, often glossy; cilia whitish, often irregularly barred ochreous
 
 
44 (43)
Forewing glossy pale ochreous yellow, sometimes greyish tinged; all veins equally more or less pale-lined; cilia irregularly barred white and ochreous
 
21.0-28.0mm. Late July to early September. Face with cone markedly shorter than eye-diameter.
-
Forewing pale ochreous yellow, not glossy or greyish tinged, sometimes greyish in dorsal area; veins unequally pale streaked; cilia unicolorous whitish
 
Face with conspicuous cone, about equal to eye-diameter. See couplet 12.
 
45 (41)
Larger species, 33.0-38.0mm
Haimbachia cicatricella (part, female)
 
Late June to late August. Pronounced sexual dimorphism (see couplet 39). Forewing dark brown, often with contrasting broad yellowish white costa; dark markings reduced or absent.
-
Smaller species, 22.0-31.0mm
 
 
46 (45)
Frons with well-developed cone, projecting by more than two-fifth of eye-diameter.
 
22.0-31.0mm. Forewing unicolorous dark brown or almost so. Rare dark form. See couplets 12, 21 and 40.
-
Frons without well-developed cone, only slightly prominent
A. selasella (part)
 
21.0-27.0mm. Forewing unicolorous dark brown or almost so. Very rare dark form. See couplet 11.
 

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