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Toelichting

41.3 Olethreutinae

1
Hindwing with veins 3 and 4 connate, sometimes separate, but nearly always approximated at base. Forewing male usually without costal fold
2
 
-
Hindwing with veins 3 and 4 stalked or coincident. Forewing male often with costal fold
 
 
2 (1)
Hindwing with vein 5 originating approximated to the common base of veins 3 and 4 or, if veins 3 and 4 are separate, from base of vein 4, then curving towards vein 4 and further running to termen parallel with 4 or slightly diverging from 4. Forewing male without costal fold
3
 
In hindwing 3 and 4 separate, vein 5 sometimes only slightly curved, these specimens have to be attributed to this alternative if in forewing the ocellus (sometimes indistinct or reduced) is lacking.
-
Hindwing with vein 5 straight from base to termen, originating remote from common base of veins 3 and 4 or, if veins 3 and 4 are separate, from base of vein 4
 
Forewing male without costal fold except for some Dichrorampha species.
 
3 (2)
Forewing elongate, length costa about three times largest width wing
4
 
-
Forewing not elongate, length costa less than 2.7 times largest width wing
8
 
 
4 (3)
Forewing with transverse markings, also in specimens with reduced markings remnants traceable; costa without dark strigulae
 
11.0-19.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing yellowish grey; diffuse basal patch and narrow median fascia (often interrupted below middle) both brown; sometimes forewing reddish brown with obscure markings.
-
Forewing without transverse markings; costa usually with many dark strigulae
5
 
 
5 (4)
Generally larger species, 16.0-23.0mm. Forewing male dark greyish brown, slightly reddish-tinged, with numerous scattered dark spots and indistinct markings; female with more uniform coloration and ochreous yellow costal and often also dorsal areas
 
Male 16.0-18.0mm, female 20.0-23.0mm. Late May to early September.
-
Generally smaller species, 10.0-18.0mm. Forewing usually with distinct markings, e.g. a crescent-shaped disco-cellular mark
6
 
In species attributed to this alternative forms occur, similar to female of B. robustana.
 
6 (5)
Forewing without fine blackish grey or dark brown interneural streaks between veins 7 and 8
 
10.0-18.0mm. Mid May to mid September. Forewing vary variable in colour and markings; usually pale ochreous or brownish ochreous with dark crescent-shaped discocellular mark; costa strigulated darker. Forewing sometimes unicolorous pale ochreous or dark brown; not uncommon is a form with costal area pale ochreous and rest of wing dark brown. Male genitalia can be distinguished from the next two species without dissection by the spine cluster of the sacculus extending to anterior margin of sacculus.
-
Forewing with fine blackish grey or dark brown interneural streaks between veins 7 and 8 and between 6 and 7
7
 
In male genitalia tip of clustered spines not reaching to margin of sacculus.
 
7 (6)
Forewing from base to apex with dark longitudinal streak composed of two parts, not being in direct line and dividing pale ochreous ground colour in costal and dorsal area
 
15.0-19.0mm. Late June to late August (in Denmark). Forewing pale ochreous with dorsal area not or only slightly darker than costal area; longitudinal streak blackish grey or dark brown, forming usually an oblique discocellular dash; variability less than in B. lancealana.
-
Forewing without such a dark longitudinal streak
 
10.0-17.0mm. June to August (in Central Europe). Forewing pale ochreous; markings similar to B. lancealana, brownish grey; variability as in that species.
 
8 (3)
Hindwing with veins 6 and 7 stalked
9
 
-
Hindwing with veins 6 and 7 approximated near base
 
 
9 (8)
Forewing with broad whitish or pale ochreous fascia from three-quarters of costa to tornus
 
-
Forewing without such fascia
 
 
10 (9)
Hindwing white, broadly darker from apex to tornus
Endothenia marginana (male, part)
 
See couplet 13.
-
Hindwing grey or brownish grey, often somewhat paler basally
 
 
11 (9)
Forewing with basal two-thirds dark blackish brown, leaving paler a dorsal blotch at two-fifth; cilia greyish brown with dark subbasal line, not whitish at tornus
E. pullana (part)
 
See couplet 16.
-
Forewing with basal two-thirds dark, leaving paler a dorsal and a costal blotch, sometimes connected to form a fascia; cilia whitish at tornus
 
 
12 (11)
Forewing with whitish fascia in distal third smoothly curved from tornus to costa, distinctly narrowed in middle and more or less reduced by greyish brown suffusion
 
13.0-15.5mm. Mid June to early August. Forewing dark greyish brown mixed ferruginous; broad fascia in distal third whitish; cilia plumbeous grey or dark greyish brown, white near tornus, blackish brown along termen, with some brownish-tipped cilia; pale cilia-line ill-defined and indistinct. Hindwing greyish brown, in male paler basally.
-
Forewing with whitish fascia in distal third as it were composed of two parts, a dorsal part and a costal part placed more basally, not in line with the dorsal part
 
 
13 (12)
Generally larger species, 14.0-19.0mm. Forewing with brown and ochreous admixtures; pale fascia in distal third comparatively broad
 
Undersized specimens occur, 12.0-14.0mm. June and July. Forewing grey and blackish brown; cilia plumbeous grey, white near tornus, dark brown along termen, with series of ochreous or greyish ochreous-tipped cilia, pale cilia-line present. Hindwing dark grey, somewhat darker distally, sometimes for the greater part greyish white.
-
Generally smaller species, 11.0-13.5mm. Forewing without brown and ochreous admixtures; pale fascia in distal third comparatively narrow
E. marginana (part)
 
Early May to early August. Forewing dark greyish brown; cilia brownish grey, white near tornus, broadly blackish along termen, with some ochreous-tipped cilia, pale cilia-line often ill-defined. Hindwing dark grey, greyish white in basal area
 
14 (9)
Forewing with large diffuse medio-dorsal ochreous yellow blotch, obliterating dark median fascia, which is visible at costa only as a narrow blackish bar
 
11.0-17.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing blackish grey; striated brownish black and with veins more or less distinctly lined with brownish black; large dorsal blotch sometimes paler or obscure.
-
Forewing with median fascia not obliterated for the greater part by a diffuse ochreous medio-dorsal blotch
 
Forewing with median fascia often indistinct or not reaching costa.
 
15 (14)
Smaller species, 10.0-14.0mm. Forewing brownish to blackish brown with diffuse markings
 
-
Larger species, 14.0-22.0mm. Forewing brownish, usually with distinct markings
 
 
16 (15)
Forewing dark blackish brown, often with ferruginous admixture; basal area sometimes mixed with violet; cilia unicolorous dark greyish brown
E. pullana (part)
 
10.0-14.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing with markings blackish brown. Hindwing dark brown, cilia paler. This dark form very similar to E. ustulana. See couplet 11.
-
Forewing dark blackish brown without ferruginous admixture, but with weak violet tinge, more pronounced in basal half of wing; cilia brownish, paler at tornus
 
10.0-13.0mm. June and July (in Britain). Forewing slightly narower than in E. pullana; markings brown and blackish brown, somewhat better defined than in E. pullana. Hindwing blackish brown, cilia paler.
 
17 (15)
Forewing with median fascia distinct and entire
 
See couplet 67.
-
Forewing with median fascia incomplete and often indistinct
 
 
18 (17)
Forewing with termen slightly concave; median fascia sometimes indistinct, but always represented by a strong blackish suffusion medially
 
18.0-23.0mm. Early June to early October. Forewing ochreous brown; basal patch edged dark brown, acutely angulated and not reaching to dorsum.
-
Forewing with termen straight or slightly convex; median fascia often indistinct and without the blackish suffusion medially
 
14.0-20.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing brown; basal patch obsolete; median fascia dark brown, only developed costally.
 
19 (8)
Hindwing with veins 2 and 3 remote at termen, 2 approximated to 1c and 3 approximated to 4 at termen
 
-
Hindwing with veins 2 and 3 close together, distances between 1c, 2, 3 and 4 at termen about equal
 
 
20 (19)
Forewing with termen very oblique (at an angle of about 60° to costa) and comparatively long (about two-thirds length costa)
 
12.0-14.0mm. Late April to early July. Forewing ferruginous ochreous; markings poorly defined, three blackish triangular blotches, one on middle of costa, one before middle of dorsum and another dorsal blotch near tornus, sometimes these markings more or less confluent. Male with hindwing white and translucent basally, towards apex suffused blackish grey. Female with hindwing dark grey.
-
Forewing with termen not conspicuously oblique (at an angle of about 80° to costa) and comparatively short (about half length costa)
 
 
21 (20)
Forewing with broad plumbeous transverse band before middle and a narrower one beyond middle of wing
 
10.0-17.0mm. March to August (in Central Europe). Forewing creamy, heavily suffused plumbeous in some areas; basal patch well-developed distally with a tendency to reduction, median fascia narrow near costa and dorsum, produced distad at middle, both brownish. Hindwing in male whitish, brownish distally, in female wholly dark brownish grey.
-
Forewing without such plumbeous transverse bands
 
 
22 (21)
Forewing with basal patch reduced to an incomplete subbasal fascia forming a dark, strong subquadrate blotch on dorsum; median fascia narrow, at dorsum distinctly narrower than pale transverse band before it. Hindwing greyish white, darker apically
 
11.0-16.0mm. Late May to early Sepember. Forewing pale ochreous grey to ochreous, sometimes slightly rosy-tinged; Markings ochreous brown or ferruginous. Variable species, markings forewing often reduced.
-
Forewing with basal patch complete and well-defined; median fascia broad, width at dorsum at least equal to width pale transverse band before it. Hindwing grey or brownish grey
 
 
23 (22)
Forewing with ground colour varying from reddish yellow to pale brownish red
 
10.5-12.5mm. April to August (in Germany). Forewing with markings dark brown or ferruginous, less contrasting than in L. artemisiana. Hindwing brownish.
-
Forewing with ground colour whitish, often strigulated greyish
 
 
24 (23)
Forewing with ground colour white, in distal part of wing ochreous creamy; dark strigulation absent; dark median fascia narrower at dorsum than at costa
 
9.0-13.0mm. April, May and July, August (in Central Europe). Forewing with basal patch distinct, dark brown; median fascia ferruginous, mixed blackish. Hindwing greyish brown.
-
Forewing with ground colour greyish white, strigulated dark grey, variably suffused with grey and sometimes faintly ochreous tinged; dark median fascia wider at dorsum than at costa
 
10.0-14.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with basal patch well-defined, median fascia distinct, both dark brown. Hindwing grey.
 
25 (19)
Forewing without the characteristic tortricoid markings, at most some remnants; sometimes almost unicolorous varying from pale grey to dark greyish brown, more often blackish brown, ferruginous or brownish with ferruginous, olive, rosy or plumbeous striation or strigulation
 
-
Forewing with distinct elements of characteristic tortricoid markings, such as basal patch, central fascia, costal patch before apex and ocellus, but also the cryptic black and white coloration of the species resembling bird droppings when at rest
 
 
26 (25)
Large species, 21.0-27.0mm. Forewing almost unicolorous, varying from pale grey to dark greyish brown without reticulation or strigulation
 
Mid June to early August. These unmarked specimens belong to the nominate form, occurring about equally frequent to the fasciate form; see couplet 53.
-
Smaller species, 13.0-20.0mm. Forewing strigulated or reticulated
 
 
27 (26)
Forewing blackish brown with lustrous plumbeous strigulae
 
14.0-19.0mm. The dark form f. rooana De Graaf, occurring mainly in marshy areas. See couplet 70.
-
Forewing with paler coloration, ferruginous or rosy
 
 
28 (27)
Forewing reddish ferruginous, irregularly striated plumbeous grey
 
13.0-15.0mm. May and June.
-
Forewing with general coloration brownish or pinkish
 
15.0-19.0 mm.
 
29 (28)
Forewing pale greyish ochreous, variably strigulated olive brown or ferruginous brown, not pinkish-tinged
 
15.0-19.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing shorter, broader and costa more strongly arched than in the similar C. rosaceana.
-
Forewing pale ochreous, densely and distinctly irrorated and striated pinkish
 
15.0-19.0mm. July to early September. The forewing coloration loses much of its brightness already during life.
 
30 (25)
Forewing with basal patch not traceable, dark purplish brown, reticulated ferruginous
 
Male 17.0-22.0mm, female 14.0-18.0mm. Late May to end June. Forewing with median fascia purplish blackish brown, occasionally fragmented.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
31 (30)
Forewing with apical third whitish or pale ochreous, distinctly paler than rest of wing
 
Forewing with basal two-thirds sometimes with pale markings.
-
Forewing with apical third not distinctly paler than rest of wing
 
Forewing often with pale markings, but these consist of fasciae before and/or beyond middle of wing.
 
32 (31)
Forewing with dark basal part reaching to beyond two-thirds of costa; dark basal part with its outer edge in costal half pointing to middle or three-quarters of dorsum.
 
-
Forewing with dark basal part not reaching to two-thirds of costa; dark basal part with its outer edge in costal half pointing to tornus
 
 
33 (32)
Forewing with dark basal part without conspicuous white or whitish markings
 
Forewing with dark basal part sometimes with greyish, rather diffuse costal blotch before middle or transverse plumbeous grey striae.
-
Forewing with dark basal part with conspicuous white or whitish markings
 
Forewing with dark basal part sometimes with paler fascia, coloured pinkish white costally.
 
34 (33)
Forewing with whitish part with large patch of dark greyish suffusion extending from apical part of costa to tornal area and also with several small black spots in central area. Generally smaller species, 14.0-18.0mm
 
Late June to early August. Forewing with basal two-thirds blackish brown with irregular transverse plumbeous-grey striae.
-
Forewing with white part with faint greyish striae and some distinct black spots in central area. Generally larger species, 17.0-22.0mm
 
Mid June to early September. Forewing with basal two-thirds dark brown with irregular black dots and before middle an often indistinct greyish blotch.
 
35 (33)
Forewing with basal two-thirds so marked paler that its outer part forms an indistinct darker black-marked median fascia; this fascia sometimes constricted at middle, but more frequently interrupted
A. lineana (part)
 
17.0-21.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing with pale colour varying from white to greyish and pale ochreous. Superficially resembling paler forms of A. semifasciana, but differing, besides in the characters used in the key, in its narrower forewing, in the paler ground colour and the presence of dark suffusion along dorsum. See couplet 45.
-
Forewing with basal two-thirds predominantly dark, its outer part not forming a dark median fascia
 
19.0-22.0mm. Late May to mid August. Pale colour forewing usually white, but sometimes slightly tinged yellowish.
 
36 (32)
Forewing in extreme apex with distinct roundish blackish dot
 
15.0-19.0mm. Mid May to early August. Forewing with pale colour white, occasionally partly ochreous-tinged; in terminal area greyish suffusion from apical to tornal area.
-
Forewing in extreme apex without blackish dot
 
 
37 (36)
Forewing in dark basal part transverse fascia at least with a whitish or pale rosy square costal spot at one-fourth
 
-
Forewing in dark basal part without such a costal spot
 
 
38 (37)
Smaller species, 14.0-16.5mm. Forewing with pale colour pinkish white, tinged slightly ochreous
 
Late April to early September. Forewing with outer edge of dark basal part followed in middle by a conspicuous blackish spot.
-
Larger species, 16.5-20.0mm. Forewing with pale colour pure white, occasionally faintly tinged with pale ochreous
 
Late May to early August. Forewing with outer edge of dark basal part oblique from slightly beyond middle of costa to tornus and not followed by a distinct blackish spot (sometimes one, which is, however, connected with dark area).
 
39 (37)
Forewing with outer edge of dark basal part not followed by conspicuous dark spot
 
17.0-22.0mm. Late June to early October. Forewing with pale colour pure white, sometimes with patches of pale ochreous; pale distal area without blackish spots, only with some pale grey strigulae.
-
Forewing with outer edge of dark basal part followed by one or more dark spots
 
 
40 (39)
Forewing with pale colour light ochreous, faintly pink-tinged
 
16.0-21.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with outer edge of dark basal part slightly convex and followed in middle by two or more black dots.
-
Forewing with pale colour white
 
15.0-21.0mm. Mid May to mid September. Forewing with outer edge of dark basal part immediately followed in middle by two distinct black dots.
 
41 (31)
Forewing with basal area and dorsal third white, rest of wing blackish brown
 
One of the largest Olethreutinae, 19.0-24.0mm. Mid June to early October.
-
Forewing coloured otherwise
 
 
42 (41)
Forewing purplish black with one conspicuous marking, a large pale pink costal blotch at three-quarters
 
10.5-15.0mm. June and July. Characteristic species.
-
Forewing coloured otherwise
 
 
43 (42)
Forewing deep orange brown with conspicuous large patch in lower post-median area, mixed pale yellowish and black
 
14.0-18.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with entire transverse fascia at one-third, three incomplete fasciae in apical area and three longitudinal streaks from base, all lustrous plumbeous. Readily distinguishable by characteristic colour and markings of forewing.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
44 (43)
Forewing with heavy elongated black median dash edging greyish brown costal blotch dorsally; often interrupted greyish brown median fascia present with dorsal edge of costal part of distinctly black-marked
 
-
Forewing without black median dash edging dorsally dark costal blotch or costal part of interrupted dark median fascia
 
 
45 (44)
Forewing with well-developed median fascia, interrupted at middle
 
See couplet 35.
-
Forewing with median fascia developed in costal half as a large trapezoid blotch, dorsal half obsolescent or absent
 
 
46 (45)
Forewing with inner edge of dark costal blotch at an angle of 60-90° to costa; costa 2.3 to 2.4 times greatest width wing
 
17.0-21.0mm. Late June to mid August. Forewing pale greyish.
-
Forewing with inner edge of dark costal blotch at an angle of 30-45° to costa; length costa 2.6 times greatest width wing
 
18.0-21.0mm. Late June and July. Forewing pale greyish, occasionally distal third of wing whitish.
 
47 (44)
Forewing bright yellowish, for the greater part suffused with black striae and shining plumbeous transverse streaks
 
14.0-18.0mm. Early June to late July.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
48 (47)
Forewing dark coloured; terminal cilia grey, with pale yellow bars below apex and distinctly pale yellow at tornus
 
12.0-19.0mm. Late May and June. Forewing ferruginous ochreous, mixed black with metallic plumbeous striae; basal patch and median fascia ill-defined, blackish brown. Hindwing in male dark greyish brown, basal and median areas whitish or yellowish, in female unicolorous dark greyish brown. Similar to P. fuligana. See next couplet.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia not barred pale yellow near apex and not coloured pale yellow at tornus (sometimes slightly paler at tornus)
 
Occasionally forewing with terminal cilia irregularly barred yellowish and dark brown (see couplet 54). Hindwing in male not distinctly paler basally.
 
49 (48)
Forewing with yellowish white costal strigulae also on underside wing well recognizable as distinct strigulae
 
10.0-17.0mm. June and July (in Germany). Forewing brownish grey; markings blackish brown, indistinct and confluent; lustrous silvery grey striae mainly along edges of dark markings; apical part of pale tornal spot pointing to three-quarters to four-fifth of costa (in P penthinana from half-way to two-thirds); dark specimens occasionally almost unicolorous. Hindwing dark greyish brown, slightly paler basally. See preceding couplet.
-
Forewing underside without distinct pale strigulae
 
 
50 (49)
Forewing without dark pre-tornal dorsal spot
 
-
Forewing with dark pre-tornal dorsal spot, separate or incorporated in dark median fascia
 
 
51 (50)
Forewing with basal patch not or only slightly darker than ground colour
 
15.0-22.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing pale brown to reddish brown, mixed paler, strigulated dark brown; median fascia well-developed, dark brown and with irregular edges.
-
Forewing with basal patch distinctly darker than ground colour
 
 
52 (51)
Forewing with plumbeous metallic striae
 
See couplet 64.
-
Forewing without metallic striae
 
Dark specimens with purplish brown appearance. See couplet 56.
 
53 (50)
Generally larger species, 21.0-27.0mm. Forewing without pre-apical transverse streak or dark terminal blotch
 
The dark form with well-defined dark basal patch and median fascia. See couplet 26.
-
Generally smaller species, 11.0-23.0mm. Forewing with dark pre-apical transverse streak or dark blotch along termen
 
 
54 (53)
Frons and labial palpus white or whitish
 
12.0-14.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing pale yellow, strigulated dark brown, striated plumbeous grey; basal patch and median fascia dark brown, space between them forming very broad pale striated transverse band; terminal cilia irregularly barred yellowish and dark brown. Hindwing dark grey; male with elongate projecting lobe at base of inner margin.
-
Frons and labial palpus varying from pale ochreous through pale brownish grey to dark brown
 
 
55 (54)
Forewing with large dark brown, roundish or subquadrate subterminal blotch in or near middle of distal area
 
-
Forewing without such a blotch in distal area
 
 
56 (55)
Forewing with basal patch at least dorsally blackish brown; inner edge of medio-dorsal whitish blotch at an angle of 70-90° to dorsum
 
14.0-20.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing brownish grey; markings blackish brown; pale medio-dorsal blotch not bifurcate, with dark suffusion or absent, its inner side pointing to two-thirds to four-thirds of dorsum. Variable species, sometimes with paler areas, but also specimens with dark almost unicolorous forewings occur. thorax with posterior crest of raised scales brown to dark brown.
-
Forewing with basal area brown, sometimes outwardly edged blackish brown near dorsum; inner edge of medio-dorsal whitish blotch (if visible) at an angle of 45-60° to dorsum
 
17.0-21.0mm. July and August. Forewing brownish grey; markings blackish brown; whitish medio-dorsal blotch bifurcate and usually well-defined, its inner side pointing to one half to two-thirds of dorsum. Less variable than preceding species. Thorax with posterioir crest of raised scales brown to dark brown.
 
57 (55)
Forewing with basal half predominantly ochreous or ferruginous, distal half predominantly blackish brown. Frons yellowish grey or pale greyish white
 
11.5-17.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing with broad plumbeous striae; small white spot at end of disc. Labial palpus for the greater part yellowish grey or pale greyish white.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise. Frons from ochreous to dark greyish brown
 
 
58 (57)
Forewing shining silvery white with deep ferruginous brown irregularly broken markings; usually additional dark sub-terminal fascia from four-fifth of costa to tornus
 
18.0-25.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing with basal blotch(usually divided by pale fascia), median and sub-terminal fasciae and blotch along termen; often with whitish discocellular spot; cilia white, irregularly barred dark grey.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
59 (58)
Forewing whitish, suffused and reticulated with brownish and with irregular, not well-defined brown markings; median fascia subdivided into several more or less separated parts
 
12.0-18.0mm. Early May to mid July. Forewing with basal patch usually weak; subterminal and terminal markings more or less subdivided into blotches; metallic markings absent; cilia brownish with whitish bars and spots or unicolorous brownish or whitish.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
60 (59)
Forewing with first pale fascia and dark median fascia of about equal width at costa.
 
11.0-16.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing pure white with pale ochreous grey striae or suffusions, often with slight pinkish hue; markings grey, mixed black and ochreous: basal patch (with outer edge almost straight), median fascia and slender blotch along termen.
-
Forewing with first pale fascia narrower than dark median fascia at costa
 
 
61 (60)
Forewing with dark blotch along termen fused with dark apical markings or absent.
 
-
Forewing with discrete dark blotch along termen
 
 
62 (61)
Vertex yellowish orange, mixed blackish. Forewing dark brown mixed blackish and ochreous; forewing with two slender white fasciae, at one-third and three-quarters respectively, often interrupted; without further distinct markings
 
12.5-17.0mm. June and July. Hindwing blackish brown.
-
Vertex varying from pale ochreous to blackish, not tinged orange, often mixed blackish
 
 
63 (62)
Forewing with width at costa of first pale fascia about one-third width basal patch
 
-
Forewing with width at costa of first pale fascia about half width basal patch
 
 
64 (63)
Forewing with dark colour ferruginous tinged, slightly olive; pale colour glossy white; central fascia usually with veins 1 and 2 black
 
13.0-19.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with white discocellular spot. Vertex ochreous to almost black.
-
Forewing with dark colour dark brownish olive, sometimes more ferruginous; pale colour light ochreous grey; central fascia without black longitudinal streaks
A. micana (part)
 
13.0-19.0mm. Late May to mid July. Forewing with white discocellular spot. Vertex male ochreous, greyish yellow or brownish, female brownish olive. See also couplet 52.
 
65 (63)
Forewing with dorsal half of basal patch indentated outwardly, usually also indentation in costal half
 
12.0-15.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing with pale colour light yellowish grey olive with silvery striae; basal patch distinct, median fascia and fused apical and terminal markings all blackish brown suffused with olive. Vertex black mixed pale yellowish. See couplet 69.
-
Forewing with basal patch not indentated outwardly
 
14.0-21.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing with pale colour pure white, in distal area with ochreous and greyish shades; basal patch distinct, median fascia (with ochreous suffusion), fused apical and terminal markings, all almost black; white discocellular spot. Vertex brownish olive mixed blackish.
 
66 (61)
Forewing with outer edge of dark median fascia with rather narrow but distinct projection at middle and another, sometimes less prominent, costad
 
-
Forewing with outer edge of dark median fascia without such projections
 
 
67 (66)
Forewing with dark blotch along termen distinctly tapered towards termen, often interrupted
 
15.0-20.0mm. Mid May to early August. Forewing with pale colour light yellowish grey or light reddish ochreous, striated whitish; basal patch and median fascia well-defined (with inwardly one indentation above middle, sometimes indistinct); apical and terminal marks, all varying from ochreous grey to ochreous olive mixed with blackish brown. Hindwing with veins 6 and 7 stalked. See couplet 17.
-
Forewing with dark blotch along termen with parallel edges or tapered towards costa, not interrupted
 
Hindwing with veins 6 and 7 approximated near base.
 
68 (67)
Forewing with dark basal patch outwardly not indentated; dark median fascia inwardly indented near middle
 
14.0-19.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with pale colour dull-whitish; basal patch, median fascia, apical and terminal markings brownish grey, dark brown or ferruginous.
-
Forewing with dark basal patch outwardly indentated in dorsal half; median fascia inwardly irregular but more or less directly transverse
 
10.5-16.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with pale colour whitish, often suffused with grey or ochreous or reddish ochreous; basal patch, median fascia, apical and terminal markings, all varying from ochreous brown to dark reddish brown; extremely pale and very dark forms occur, both with diffuse markings.
 
69 (66)
Forewing with dark blotch along termen starting near tornus as a more or less triangular blackish brown marking, continued to costa as an olive, blackish mixed streak
 
See couplet 65.
-
Forewing with dark blotch along termen not or hardly reaching to costa or obsolescent in costal area
 
 
70 (69)
Larger species, 18.0-20.5mm. Forewing with inner edge of dark median fascia almost straight
 
Late May to mid July. Forewing with pale colour whitish; basal patch (with inner edge without excavation), median fascia (almost divided by a narrow elongate pale streak extending from inner edge above middle to four-fifth width of median fascia), apical and terminal markings, all brownish with slight olive tinge.
-
Smaller species, 14.0-18.0mm. Forewing with inner edge of dark median fascia with two indentations, one above middle and another, less pronounced, above dorsum
 
Early May to early October. Forewing with pale colour light ochreous or greyish ochreous with faint olive tinge; basal patch (usually not well-defined, with sinuate edge deeply excavated near middle), median fascia (interrupted, usually partly, above middle by pale longitudinal streak), apical and tornal markings, all blackish brown, suffused or strigulate with olive. Very variable species; paler and darker forms occur, ranging to an almost blackish form (see couplet 27).
 
71 (1)
Forewing with apex subfalcate or falcate
 
Here key out the genus Ancylis (except A. achatana (couplet 100) and A. obtusana (couplet 91)) and also Rhopobota naevana.
-
Forewing with apex not subfalcate or falcate
 
 
72 (71)
Forewing with apex subfalcate, termen distinctly notched below apex; veins 7 and 8 stalked
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late June to mid September. Forewing often grey, but varying from white to blackish brown; basal patch and median fascia dark brown, indistinct in very dark specimens. Male with hindwing underside conspicuously suffused black towards costa.
-
Forewing with apex falcate; veins 7 and 8 separate
 
Male with hindwing underside not suffused black towards costa.
 
73 (72)
Forewing with costal half white from base to two-thirds, contrasting with blackish grey coloration in distal and dorsal areas
 
13.0-18.0mm. Mid May to mid August. Vertex and thorax white. Forewing with ocellus greyish, edged white on termen.
-
Forewing with ground colour not white
 
 
74 (73)
Forewing with subquadrate dark ferruginous brown dorsal blotch reaching from base to middle, diffuse costally, whitish-edged outwardly
 
12.0-16.0mm. Early May to early August. Forewing yellowish brown.
-
Forewing without such a dorsal blotch
 
 
75 (74)
Forewing pale grey; brown markings indistinct, often reduced to a few dark dashes
A. geminana (part)
 
12.0-17.0mm. Late April to mid August. This is the f. subarcuana Douglas, which is associated with Salix repens. See couplet 77.
-
Forewing with well-defined markings
 
 
76 (75)
Forewing in costal area darker than in dorsal area, both areas distinctly separated by an uninterrupted longitudinal oscillating whitish line, running from base to apex, often indistinct in basal area
 
-
Forewing with darker costal area, not separated from paler dorsal area by an uninterrupted whitish line
 
In A. uncella the line separating both areas in forewing is not whitish and interrupted by a dark fascia (see couplet 82).
 
77 (76)
Forewing with costal area ferruginous brown, dorsal area grey; whitish dividing line between both areas distally almost straight towards apex
 
12.0-18.0mm. Mid May to mid August.
-
Forewing with costal area greyish ochreous, then a dark greyish brown longitudinal zone in middle of wing, followed by the whitish dividing line, dorsal area pale grey; dividing line with distinct curve near apex
A. geminana (part)
 
12.0-18.0mm. Late April to mid August. This is the nominate form, which is associated with various Salix species except S. repens. See couplet 75.
 
78 (76)
Forewing in basal two-thirds greyish or dark brown without pale markings
 
In basal two-thirds of forewing some faint darker strigulae occur, distal part with paler markings.
-
Forewing in basal two-thirds with paler markings
 
 
79 (78)
Forewing with ground colour almost uniform deep dark brown, apical and terminal areas ferruginous orange; ocellus indicated by three or four inconspicuous elongate blackish dashes
 
13.0-18.0mm. Mid May to early July. Labial palpus only slightly longer than head.
-
Forewing with ground colour greyish brown or dark grey with faint dark strigulae; ocellus prominent, silvery grey, edged whitish inwardly
 
11.0-16.0mm. Late May to early July. Labial palpus twice length of head. Forewing with ocellus occasionally concolorous with rest of wing.
 
80 (78)
Forewing with whitish longitudinal streak from base towards apical area (reminiscent of a similar basal stripe in the Crambinae), distal half ill-defined
 
12.0-17.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing with ground colour ochreous brown.
-
Forewing without such a whitish longitudinal streak
 
 
81 (80)
Forewing with dark basal patch ill-defined, obsolete costally or connected with dark coloured costal area
 
-
Forewing with basal area sharply divided into dark brown dorsal part and whitish costal part
 
 
82 (81)
Forewing with basal patch connected and concolorous with ferruginous brown costal area
 
15.0-20.0mm. Late April to early August. Forewing with triangular medio-dorsal blotch and large ovate ocellus occupying tornal and terminal areas, both whitish.
-
Forewing with basal patch separate, not connected with dark coloured costal area, often less distinct and ill-defined costally
 
 
83 (82)
Smaller species, 10.0-13.0mm. Forewing with basal patch extending to just beyond middle of dorsum
 
July and August, in Britain also from April to June. Forewing grey; basal patch obsolete near costa, median fascia not reaching to costa or obsolete near costa, both brown to dark brown. Specimens with almost unicolorous dark brown forewings are known.
-
Larger species, 13.0-18.0mm. Forewing with basal patch not passing middle of dorsum
 
Mid April to late August. Forewing grey; basal patch less distinct near costa, median fascia narrow, distinct throughout, both brown to dark brown. Variable species, markings of forewing may be obscure in dark specimens or strongly contrasting in pale specimens.
 
84 (81)
Forewing with costal blotch, its inner edge extending from middle of costa to half-way dorsum, triangular, deep reddish brown; pale band between basal patch and this blotch greyish (ground colour)
 
12.0-17.0mm. Mid May to late August. Forewing greyish; basal patch and median fascia deep reddish brown.
-
Forewing without such a blotch; pale band between basal patch and darker distal part of forewing whitish (ground colour)
 
 
85 (84)
Forewing with median fascia entire, more or less distinct, ochreous to brown
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late April to mid June. Forewing whitish; basal patch dark brown, usually notched, constricted or interrupted below its tip.
-
Forewing with median fascia obsolescent or absent near dorsum
 
Forewing with tip basal patch rounded or sometimes faintly notched outwardly below tip.
 
86 (85)
Forewing with median fascia edged white outwardly; three or sometimes four minute blackish dots at base of cilia on middle of termen
 
10.0-14.0mm. Mid May to early June. Forewing whitish; basal patch dark brown, median fascia brown, mixed with ferruginous.
-
Forewing with median fascia edged with plumbeous metallic stria outwardly; one minute blackish dot at base of cilia on middle of termen
 
11.0-16.0mm. May to August. Forewing whitish; basal patch dark brown, median fascia brown, mixed with ferruginous.
 
87 (71)
Forewing with veins 4 and 5 connate or separate but approximated at base
 
-
Forewing with veins 4 and 5 separate, 5 originating about half-way between 4 and 6
 
 
88 (87)
Forewing deep ferruginous red with irregular variable anastomosing silvery white striae
 
-
Forewing ferruginous brown, brownish, greyish, greyish yellow, blackish, ochreous white, often mixed with ferruginous throughout or only distally
 
 
89 (88)
Forewing with pre-tornal marking of ground colour reaching to about middle of wing and completely enclosed by silvery striae
 
16.0-24.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing moderately arched; deep ferruginous red. Hindwing in male grey, in female slightly darker with brownish hue.
-
Forewing with pre-tornal marking of ground colour extending to beyond two-thirds and often not edged silvery white apically
 
16.0-24.0mm. Mid June to mid August. Forewing with costa almost straight; ferruginous orange; the silvery white striae often reduced. Hindwing in male brownish grey, in female blackish brown.
 
90 (88)
Forewing with ground colour ferruginous brownish or ochreous orange throughout
 
-
Forewing not ferruginous tinged or only in distal area
 
 
91 (90)
Larger species, 15.0-20.0mm. Forewing with numerous irregular variable anastomosing greyish white striae; ocellus absent
 
Mid May to early July. Forewing with general coloration ferrugineous brownish. See couplet 96.
-
Smaller species, 10.0-13.0mm. Forewing without such striae; ocellus present, but small, broadly edged plumbeous
 
Mid May to early July. Forewing with colour and markings reminiscent of Ancylis mitterbacheriana; basal patch dark ferruginous brown, paler towards costa, followed by a greyish white stria, broadly enlarged on costa.
 
92 (90)
Forewing with distal area not ferruginous-tinged
 
-
Forewing with distal area more or less ferruginous-tinged
 
 
93 (92)
Hindwing with underside heavily suffused whitish in central area
 
14.0-18.0mm. April and May (in Germany). Forewing with ground colour silvery grey; basal patch and three fasciae (of which first one entire) brownish to ferruginous brown. Forewing underside with distinct whitish costal strigulae.
-
Hindwing with underside unicolorous greyish brown, at most with paler spots
 
 
94 (93)
Forewing greyish yellow or ochreous white, sometimes tinged pinkish; with four or five blackish transverse lines, edged whitish
 
13.0-17.0mm. March, April and July, August (in Southern Europe). Forewing with blackish transverse lines in distal half of wing often connected by radial blackish lines. Hindwing greyish.
-
Forewing greyish brown or brownish black, markings otherwise
 
 
95 ()
Smaller species, 12.0-15.0mm. Forewing underside without white or whitish costal spots or strigulae
 
Late June to mid August. Forewing greyish brown irrorated whitish, with almost straight irregular plumbeous grey striae. Hindwing pale brown. See couplet 101.
-
Larger species, 15.0-22.0mm. Forewing underside with white or whitish spots or strigulae, at least near apex
 
 
96 (95)
Larger species, 15.0-22.0mm. Forewing with silvery metallic markings
 
15.0-22.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing brownish black strigulated and reticulated with silvery metallic and plumbeous; underside with white or whitish costal strigulae, at least near apex. Hindwing brown to blackish brown.
-
Forewing without silvery metallic markings
 
 
97 (92)
Labial palpus yellowish ferruginous or ochreous yellow
 
-
Labial palpus grey, blackish grey or blackish brown
 
 
98 (97)
Generally smaller species, 12.0-15.0mm. Hindwing dark grey
 
Late April to late June. Vertex, labial palpus and anterior part of thorax yellowish ferruginous. Forewing dark grey, irrorated whitish; basal patch, fascia at one-quarter and median fascia (sometimes less developed), all blackish brown; at least apical area ferruginous tinged.
-
Generally larger species, 14.0-21.0mm. Hindwing whitish, often greyish in apical third
 
Late April to early June. Vertex, labial palpus and anterior part of thorax pale yellowish ferruginous, sometimes with orangeous tinge. Forewing in basal two-thirds greyish, rest of wing ferruginous, but the division greyish-ferruginous varies.
 
99 (97)
Vertex and anterior part of thorax ferruginous, mixed blackish brown
 
12.0-18.0mm. April and early May. Labial palpus dark grey. Forewing blackish grey with three fasciae of whitish irroration, apical third ferruginous-tinged. Hindwing blackish grey.
-
Vertex and anterior part of thorax greyish or dark brown
 
 
100 (99)
Smaller species, 10.0-12.0mm
 
Late June to late August. Forewing with basal two-thirds ochreous, distal third ferruginous; two dark brown fasciae in pale area, confluent near costa, and a third within ferruginous area. Hindwing brownish.
-
Larger species, 12.0-18.0mm
 
 
101 (100)
Vertex dark brown. Forewing with outer edge of basal patch very irregular, but usually bent
 
14.0-18.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing dark greyish brown, basal patch blackish brown, dark colour in distal area with strong ferruginous admixture.
-
Vertex grey, diffusely irrorate with white. Forewing with outer edge of basal patch almost straight
 
12.0-16.0mm. Forewing greyish, wholly faintly ferruginous tinged but more pronounced in distal area; basal patch poorly defined, slightly paler than ground colour. Ferruginous tinged form. See also couplet 95.
 
102 (87)
Forewing almost unicolorous dark greyish brown or blackish brown
 
-
Forewing with markings
 
Markings forewing occasionally very indistinct.
 
103 (102)
Forewing only with brownish orange apical spot and plumbeous stria in ocellar area. Hindwing with costa distinctly sinuate at two-thirds
 
Forewing greyish brown. Dark form. See couplet 129.
-
Forewing without brownish orange apical spot. Hindwing with costa not sinuate
 
 
104 (103)
Forewing almost unicolorous greyish brown with black spot near tornus and irregular black dashes in apical area
 
See couplet 120.
-
Forewing without irregular black dashes in apical area
 
 
105 (104)
Forewing velvety blackish with faint brownish tinge
 
Forewing with length costa slightly more than two times greatest width of wing; not or only weakly strigulated. Dark form. See couplets 169, 191 and 209.
-
Forewing from grey ranging to blackish without brownish tinge
 
 
106 (105)
Forewing with length costa about three times greatest width of wing; pale costal strigulae distinct
 
Forewing dark grey, usually heavily strigulated. Dark form. See couplet 127.
-
Forewing with length costa about two and a half times greatest width of wing; pale costal strigulae indistinct or absent
S. ocellana (part)
 
Forewing rather uniformly dark grey, hardly strigulated. Dark form. See couplet 127.
 
107 (102)
Forewing predominantly white or whitish, often partly, sometimes weakly suffused with grey or brownish grey
 
-
Forewing not predominantly white or whitish, predominant colour ranging from yellowish to blackish
 
To this alternative belong species with forewing for the greater part white or whitish, but with basal patch uniformly or almost uniformly black or blackish brown.
 
108 (107)
Forewing white or whitish without darker suffusion, with ferruginous apical spot
 
-
Forewing white or whitish, at least partly suffused with brownish grey or grey, sometimes weakly
 
 
109 (107)
Generally larger species, 13.0-18.0mm. Forewing with medio-costal spot ferruginous ochreous mixed black, not confluent with dark markings in distal third of wing
 
Mid June to late August. Forewing with edge of incomplete basal patch forming a costal mark and erect blackish dorsal spot; ocellus suffused black, edged metallic plumbeous. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Generally smaller species, 10.0-14.0mm. Forewing with costal part of interrupted median fascia mixed pale ferruginous, metallic plumbeous and black, confluent with dark markings in distal third of wing
 
Mid May to early July. Forewing with basal patch brownish striated black, interrupted below costa; ocellus metallic plumbeous with central series of connected black dashes. Forewing male with costal fold.
 
110 (108)
Forewing without dark fascia limiting basal patch and without complete median fascia from tornus to costa
 
12.0-18.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing white, variably suffused with greyish; ocellus edged metallic silvery, including two or three fragmented black dashes; other markings reduced, basal patch with edge represented by dark blackish spot near middle, median fascia incomplete.
-
Forewing with dark fascia limiting basal patch (often only developed in dorsal half) and dark median fascia from tornus to costa (sometimes obsolete medially)
 
 
111 (108)
Generally smaller species, 14.0-19.0mm. Forewing with entire brown fascia limiting basal patch and dark median fascia from tornus to costa
 
June to August (in Germany). Forewing white, suffused with ochreous basally and dorsally; both fasciae inward-oblique and running almost parallel; ocellus including some square dots.
-
Generally larger species, 18.0-23.0mm. Forewing with edge basal patch represented by outward-oblique greyish olive to brownish olive streak, extending from dorsum to middle of wing
 
Mid June to early August. Forewing white, weakly suffused with grey; dorsal streak at one-quarter and median fascia (obsolete medially) not running parallel, both greyish olive to brownish olive; ocellus including two fractured black dashes.
 
112 (107)
Forewing in basal third with at least outwardly distinct dark dorsal transverse streak, tapering apically, outwardly edged almost straight or shallowly concave and extending from dorsum to about middle of wing
 
Specimens with dark colour of forewing ferruginous or blackish ferruginous do not belong to this alternative.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
113 (112)
Forewing with pale areas coarsely strigulated with dark brown; cilia grey, whitish distally and a dark grey subbasal line, paler at tornus
 
12.0-17.0mm. April and May. Forewing pale grey; dorsal transverse streak shallowly concave, median fascia complete, these markings dark brown, but costal two-thirds of median fascia paler; ocellus absent. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with pale areas not strigulated dark; cilia greyish or ochreous white with darker subbasal line, without paler apices
 
 
114 (113)
Forewing with apical area and cilia ochreous white, dark dorsal streak indistinctly edged inwardly
 
13.0-18.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing ochreous white; dorsal transverse streak almost straight; in dorsal half of wing only pre-tornal spot distinct; all markings blackish; ocellus absent. Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing with apical area dark grey, cilia ochreous grey; dark dorsal streak sharply defined inwardly
E. ramella (part)
 
13.0-18.0mm. Late June to early October. Forewing whitish; dorsal transverse spot triangular, black, another less defined spot on tornus; ocellus weak. Occasionally forewing with all markings hardly discernible except dark triangular dorsal streak. For dark form see couplet 146.
 
115 (112)
Forewing with basal patch conspicuous, complete and darker than other dark markings; complete and well-defined median fascia absent, but at least with dark tornal spot
 
Forewing with ground colour white, whitish or greyish white, sometimes slightly tinged pinkish.
-
Forewing with basal area not distinctly darker than other dark markings
 
 
116 (115)
Forewing with dark basal patch dorsally and costally of equal width or narrower dorsally
 
-
Forewing with width dark basal patch on costa two-thirds of width dorsally
 
 
117 (116)
Frons pure white; vertex blackish
 
13.0-16.0mm. May to August (in France). Forewing white with weak brownish grey suffusion; basal patch blackish grey; median fascia brown, blackish grey near tornus; apical area greyish brown; ocellus present.
-
Frons varying from ochreous yellow to brownish; vertex brownish
 
 
118 (117)
Frons and labial palpus ochreous yellow; vertex dark greyish brown
 
15.0-22.0mm. Mid May to mid July. Forewing cream-white suffused with pale ochreous; large basal patch extending along costa, pre-tornal marking blackish; ocellus with three or four black dots.
-
Frons and labial palpus greyish brown
 
 
119 (118)
Forewing with median fascia complete, from tornus to middle of costa
 
Forewing with median fascia occasionally interrupted above middle, often ill-defined.
-
Forewing with median fascia incomplete or obsolescent, only pre-tornal marking distinct
 
 
120 (119)
Forewing with ground colour pure white; basal patch with edge obtusely angulated; cilia with white dash near apex. Frons, vertex and labial palpus greyish white, sometimes with faint ochreous tinge
 
12.0-19.0mm. Late May to early August.
-
Forewing with ground colour pinkish white, sometimes with faint ochreous tinge or variably striated blackish brown; basal patch with edge almost straight; cilia without white dash near apex. Frons, vertex and labial palpus brownish grey
 
14.0-19.0mm. Late June to early September. Dark specimens with almost unicolorous greyish brown forewings occur (see couplet 104).
 
121 (119)
Forewing with edge of blackish brown basal patch perpendicular to dorsum and straight to near costa; costa towards middle suffused blackish brown; pre-tornal spot brownish grey, marked with some small black dots and apically with black triangular marking (sometimes divided)
 
16.0-22.0mm. Late June to mid August. Forewing whitish, strigulated greyish. Male with costal fold to near middle.
-
Forewing with edge of greyish brown basal patch somewhat oblique to dorsum and rather rounded (occasionally almost straight); dark suffusion along costa not reaching to middle; pre-tornal spot brown, marked with irregular black dots
 
 
122 (121)
Forewing with five to seven pairs of costal strigulae, costal strigulae comparatively long and narrow, at an acute angle to costa
 
16.0-21.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing white, strigulated darker, not strongly mixed greyish towards costa beyond middle; costa distinctly curved and wing comparatively broader. Male with costal fold to about two-fifth.
-
Forewing with four pairs of costal strigulae, costal strigulae comparatively short and thick, perpendicular to costa
 
15.0-17.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing white, strongly mixed greyish, especially towards costa beyond middle; costa weakly arched and wing comparatively narrower. Male with costal fold to middle.
 
123 (116)
Forewing white or whitish; only marked with basal patch, distinct costal blotch and weak pre-tornal spot, all blackish grey
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late May to early August. Frons whitish.
-
Forewing with additional distinct dark markings
 
 
124 (123)
Forewing with termen straight or slightly convex
 
14.0-17.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing whitish, densely irrorated grey; markings dark grey; basal patch (sometimes less pronounced), ill-defined median fascia broadly interrupted near dorsum. See couplet 205.
-
Forewing with termen distinctly concave
 
 
125 (124)
Forewing with dark pre-tornal spot markedly more distinct than costal blotch. Hindwing with costa not sinuate
 
-
Forewing with dark pre-tornal spot less distinct than costal blotch. Hindwing with costa distinctly sinuate at two-thirds
 
 
126 (125)
Frons white. Forewing with apex pre-tornal spot at two-fifth; ocellus extending from tornal area to three-fourths; ground colour ochreous white
 
11.0-17.0mm. September, October (in France June to October). Forewing with markings ochreous grey, basal patch obsolescent costally. Hindwing male with prominent cubital pecten. Antenna female without notch towards base. See couplet 134.
-
Frons greyish brown to blackish grey. Forewing with apex pre-tornal spot at one-quarter; ocellus extending from tornal area to near costa; ground colour whitish, variably suffused or strigulated dark grey or brownish grey
 
 
127 (126)
Forewing comparatively narrow; largest width one-third of length costa; ground colour white, variably suffused and strigulated with dark grey
 
10.0-14.0mm. Late May to early October. Forewing often with dark appearance (see couplet 106); costal strigulae fine and distinct. Frons and vertex blackish grey.
-
Forewing comparatively broad; largest width two-fifth of length costa; ground colour white, variably suffused with dark grey or brownish grey
S. ocellana (part)
 
12.0-17.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing usually not with dark appearance (see couplet 106); costal strigulae indistinct or absent, Quite exceptionally specimens occur with narrow forewing or with dark strigulations. Frons and vertex blackish grey.
 
128 (125)
Forewing with ochreous apical spot black-centred; occasionally this spot completely black
 
12.0-15.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing ochreous white, suffused pale brownish; basal patch and pre-tornal spot dark greyish brown mixed blackish, both well-defined; other dark markings obsolescent. Frons, vertex and labial palpus brownish. Specimens with almost unicolorous blackish brown forewings occur.
-
Forewing with brownish orange apical spot not black-centred
 
 
129 (128)
Frons to before antennae varying from cream-white to pale greyish or ochreous, vertex varying from ochreous to blackish brown
G. dealbana (part)
 
10.0-14.0mm. Early June to early October. Forewing whitish, sometimes variably suffused grey; basal patch well-defined, grey, mixed black; median fascia diffuse and ill-defined, near costa strongly mixed brownish; pre-tornal spot greyish brown. Labial palpus with third segment and tuft second segment creamy or darker, remainder dark brown. For melanic form see couplet 103.
-
Frons and vertex to jus behind antennae pure white, rest of vertex brown or blackish brown
 
11.5-16.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing white, sometimes weakly tinged with ochreous; basal patch blackish brown mixed whitish; median fascia diffuse and ill-defined, near costa strongly mixed black; pre-tornal spot blackish. Labial palpus with third segment and apex pure white, remainder blackish.
 
130 (115)
Forewing with termen sinuate, usually markedly
 
Forewing usually comparitively narrower.
-
Forewing comparatively broader and shorter
 
 
131 (130)
Forewing with ocellus including black dashes or black scales
 
-
Forewing with ocellus absent or without black dashes or black scales
 
Occasionally ocellar area traversed by greyish vertical striae dotted with black (Gypsonoma nitidulana, couplet 156); in Epinotia immundana sometimes a pale ocellus with some blackish dashes (couplet 161).
 
132 (131)
Forewing wholly striated reddish brown with broad paler fascia between basal patch and median fascia
 
12.0-15.5mm. Late June to early August. Forewing pale ochreous tinged rosy purplish. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing not wholly striated reddish brown
 
 
133 (132)
Hindwing white; darker apically, narrowly along termen and along cubital and anal veins
 
11.0-13.0mm. Early May to early June. Forewing with ground colour whitish, densely suffused and transversely strigulated brownish or greyish, distally usually ferruginous-tinged. Forewing male without costal fold. Similar to E. pygmaeana (couplet 184), but the latter species differs by the slightly rounded termen.
-
Hindwing coloured otherwise
 
 
134 (133)
Forewing with distinct well-developed dark, black-marked triangular pre-tornal blotch, usually not confluent with median fascia
 
11.0-16.0mm. September, October; in England already from July. Forewing ochreous white with scattered dark grey strigulae; basal patch greyish, mixed whitish; median fascia ill-defined, oblique, greyish. Forewing male with short costal fold. Hindwing male with conspicuous cubital pecten. See couplet 126.
-
Forewing with dark pre-tornal blotch absent, obsolete or confluent with median fascia
 
 
135 (134)
Forewing with dorsal area below submedian fold yellowish brown, costal area ochreous brown, distinctly darker:
 
11.0-20.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing at least with apical half finely and weakly strigulate with brownish. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with dorsal area not distinctly paler
 
 
136 (135)
Forewing with ocellus not metallic-edged, but obscurely edged ochreous white on lower half
 
13,0-21.0mm. July. Forewing pale ochreous grey, closely striated dark brown; costa in apical two-thirds strigulated whitish. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with ocellus metallic-edged, sometimes obscurely
 
 
137 (136)
Forewing with brownish basal patch followed by a white or greyish white fascia
 
-
Forewing with dark basal patch not followed by a white or whitish fascia
 
 
138 (137)
Forewing with dark coloration dark ferruginous; inner edge of dark median fascia indented near dorsum
 
Forewing male with costal fold. See couplet 151.
-
Forewing with dark coloration brown to dark brown without reddish tinge; inner edge of dark median fascia straight, outer edge slightly produced near middle
 
Markings forewing in female more contrasting than in male. Forewing male without costal fold. See couplet 156.
 
139 (137)
Forewing with brown basal patch strigulated blackish brown
 
11.0-16.0mm. Late June to mid August. Forewing pale ochreous grey, sometimes partly suffused dark ochreous; costa strigulated with dark brown; basal patch interrupted or weakened near middle. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with dark basal patch, if present, not strigulated blackish brown
 
 
140 (139)
Forewing with the pairs of costal strigulae in apical area connected by a whitish longitudinal streak below costa
 
15.0-23.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with ground colour greyish white, variably suffused with dark brown and ochreous or blackish, with fine dark longitudinal streaks in discal area; basal patch diffuse, median fascia narrow costally, both brownish; ocellus including two to four fragmented blackish dashes. Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing with the pairs of costal strigulae in apical area not connected by a whitish longitudinal streak or obsolete
 
 
141 (140)
Forewing pale greyish, costal area more or less whitish, rest of wing suffused brownish. Hindwing distinctly paler towards base
 
14.0-17.0mm. May and June (in Germany). Forewing with markings ill-defined, brownish; basal patch weak and median fascia indistinct; ocellus containing one or two blackish dashes. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing varying from yellowish white and reddish ochreous to blackish brown. Hindwing not or only slightly paler towards base
 
 
142 (141)
Forewing with median fascia distinct and complete (sometimes interrupted) or only with dorsal two-thirds distinct
 
-
Forewing with median fascia weakly developed, often hardly discernible
 
 
143 (142)
Forewing with ocellus including at least one complete blackish dash, one or two dashes may be fragmented or one dash is lacking
 
11.0-17.0mm. Late June to mid August. Forewing yellowish white, variably suffused with ochreous or brown; markings ochreous to dark brown. Forewing male without costal fold. Specimens with distinctly marked forewing key out here. See couplet 145.
-
Forewing with ocellus containing two or three fragmented blackish dashes, complete dashes absent
 
15.0-19.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing pale ochreous; markings brownish. Forewing male without costal fold.
 
144 (142)
Forewing with obscure costal strigulae; ground colour yellow, variably mixed with ferruginous
 
16.0-20.0mm. June and July (in England). Forewing with basal patch and median fascia weak and diffuse, both brown; blackish dashes in ocellus variable. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with distinct costal strigulae at least beyond middle; ground colour usually not mixed ferruginous
 
 
145 (143)
Forewing with ocellus including at least one complete blackish dash
 
Forewing coloration and development of the markings vary considerably. Forms with weakly marked forewings key out here. See couplet 143.
-
Forewing with ocellus including two or three fragmented blackish dashes, complete dashes absent
 
12.0-24.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing pale ochreous suffused with greyish brown; markings brownish, diffuse and ill-defined. Forewing male with costal fold to near middle.
 
146 (131)
Forewing with dorsal three-quarters almost wholly blackish brown, costal quarter whitish from base to apical spot
E. ramella (part)
 
Dark form. See also couplet 114.
-
Forewing coloured otherwise
 
 
147 (146)
Forewing predominantly pale yellowish
 
15.0-21.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing with two parallel brown fasciae, one from tornal area to costa at one-quarter and a median fascia from tornus to middle of costa, the latter connected in middle by a straight streak with apex. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing predominantly darker coloured, from reddish brown to blackish
 
 
148 (146)
Forewing blackish brown, markings indistinct or obscure. Forewing male with costal fold
 
-
Forewing with markings more or less distinct. Forewing male with or without costal fold
 
 
149 (147)
Frons and labial palpus blackish brown
 
11.0-13.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing blackish brown with pale inconspicuous medio-dorsal blotch and indistinct whitish costal strigulae apically; diffuse basal patch and median fascia obscure, only slightly darker than ground colour. Vertex blackish brown. Female with tip of slender ovipositor visible. See couplets 194 and 210.
-
Frons and labial palpus whitish
E. tedella (part)
 
Forewing of dark specimens blackish brown with indistinct or hardly discernible markings. Vertex dark brown. Female with tip of ovipositor not visible. See also couplets 155, 189 and 209.
 
150 (147)
Forewing predominantly reddish brown
 
-
Forewing coloured otherwise
 
 
151 (149)
Hindwing pale greyish brown, darker apically
 
12.0-18.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing ferruginous to very dark ferruginous with obscure markings. Variable species, for forms with white or whitish fascia see couplet 137. Forewing male with costal fold. Frons and vertex varying from yellowish brown to brown.
-
Hindwing unicolorous dark grey
 
Also a variable species. Here key out specimens with poorly marked forewings; for specimens with well-marked forewing see couplet 153. Forewing male without costal fold. Frons and vertex ochreous.
 
152 (149)
Forewing with dark basal patch followed by distinct silvery white, whitish or pale greyish brown fascia, not darkening towards costa
 
-
Forewing with pale fascia markedly paler dorsally, often only pale dorsal blotch present (occasionally indistinct or obscure)
 
 
153 (151)
Forewing with pale fascia narrower dorsally
 
12.0-16.0mm. Early June to early September. Forewing with dark coloration ochreous brown to ferruginous brown; pale markings whitish. Very variable species in colour and markings forewing. Forewing male without costal fold. See couplet 151.
-
Forewing with pale fascia narrower costally, or at dorsum and at costa approximately of equal width
 
 
154 (152)
Forewing with pale fascia dorsally and costally of approximately equal width, width dorsally less than one-sixth of length dorsum. Forewing male with costal fold
 
-
Forewing with pale fascia at dorsum one and a quarter to two times broader than at costa, width dorsally more than one quarter of length dorsum. Forewing male without costal fold
 
 
155 (153)
Forewing with pale coloration silvery white; dark basal patch outwardly blackish edged. Frons pale ochreous
 
10.0-13.0mm. Early May to early July. Forewing brownish. Hindwing with termen beneath apex markedly sinuate.
-
Forewing with pale coloration white; dark basal patch not blackish edged. Frons whitish
E. tedella (part)
 
Hindwing with termen beneath apex straight or faintly sinuate. See also couplets 149, 189 and 209.
 
156 (153)
Forewing with basal patch sharply defined, comparatively narrow, largest length 2.8 to 3.2 times largest width
 
Male 11.0-18.0mm, female 10.0-14.0mm. Early May to early August. Forewing with pale coloration varying from whitish to pale greyish brown; dark coloration brown to dark brown; male with more uniform general coloration of forewing, see couplet 138.
-
Forewing with dark basal patch rather irregular, comparatively broad, largest length 2.3 to 2.8 times largest width
 
15.0-20.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing with pale coloration light grey, sometimes tinged rosy, dark coloration brown or greyish brown.
 
157 (151)
Forewing with two conspicuous white or whitish dorsal blotches, one medio-dorsally and the other in tornal area
 
Forewing male with costal fold. See couplet 168.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
158 (157)
Forewing with inner edge of pale dorsal blotch approximately perpendicular to dorsum
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late April to early July (only one generation). Forewing with pale coloration light greyish brown, dark colour greyish brown. Dark specimens occur with whole wing dark brown except for the pale costal strigulae and the plumbeous strigulae of the ocellus. Forewing male with costal fold. Similar to E. immundana, but general coloration forewing brownish, not blackish, see couplet 161.
-
Forewing with inner edge of dorsal blotch (or dorsal part of pale median fascia) with acute angle to dorsum (60-80 grad.)
 
 
159 (157)
Forewing with slender but conspicuous longitudinal blackish streak crossing middle of dark median fascia, then curving upwards above the weak ocellus to near termen.
 
14.0-16.0mm. June and July (in Great Britain). Forewing pale ochreous, striated dark brown; rather well-defined basal patch (followed by pale band reaching to costa), irregular median fascia, both brownish. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing without such a blackish longitudinal streak
 
 
160 (158)
Forewing with white dorsal blotch distinctly edged outwardly and inwardly, sometimes obscured with plumbeous. Forewing male without costal fold
 
11.0-15.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing predominantly ashy blackish brown or dark brown. Length labial palpus equal to head, coloured greyish white and dark brown.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch only distinctly edged inwardly; sometimes blotch obscure. Forewing male with costal fold
 
Labial palpus longer than head, unicolorous dark.
 
161 (160)
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch equilateral triangular, usually whitish, sometimes suffused with greyish, occasionally ferruginous
 
12.0-15.0mm. Mid April to late September (two generations). Forewing with pale coloration greyish white, variably irrorate and suffused with blackish brown; dark markings blackish brown. Similar to E. tetraquetrana, see couplet 158.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch scalene and flattened, ferruginous, greyish or sometimes suffused with blackish brown, but always inward edge distinct
 
12.0-17.0mm. Late June to early October. Forewing with extreme wide variation in coloration and markings, characteristic is the ferruginous suffusion, sometimes restricted to small areas, e.g. dorsal blotch, but occasionally this suffusion may spread out over almost the whole wing.
 
162 (130)
Forewing with costal half dark brown, dorsal half whitish
 
See couplets 184 and 200. Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing marked and coloured otherwise
 
 
163 (162)
Forewing with white or whitish dorsal blotch
 
-
Forewing with dorsal blotch absent or not white or whitish
 
 
164 (163)
Forewing with white or whitish dorsal blotch falcate, arising from dorsum before middle, strongly angulated or curved medially and then extending distally towards tornus
 
17.0-26.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing deep reddish brown; ocellus pale grey with two or three brown dots; dorsal blotch varies considerably in shape and is sometimes connected with ocellus, sometimes suffused with grey (see couplet 192) or occasionally obliterated.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch not falcate
 
 
165 (164)
Forewing with distal third coloured ferruginous orange
 
13.0-16.5mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing dark grey, irrorated whitish; between basal patch and median fascia a white blotch, often extended and darkened towards costa. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with distal third not coloured ferruginous orange
 
 
166 (165)
Forewing with ocellus absent, obsolescent or without metallic edging
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
-
Forewing with metallic-edged ocellus
 
Forewing male with costal fold.
 
167 (166)
Forewing with two conspicuous white or whitish dorsal blotches, one medio-dorsally, the other in tornal area, occasionally fused
 
Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing with one white or whitish dorsal blotch
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
168 (167)
Forewing with first white or whitish dorsal blotch not reaching to middle, second traversed longitudinally by a brownish line
 
16.0-21.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing dark brownish grey, slightly purplish tinged; both pale dorsal blotches well-defined, never fused. See couplet 157.
-
Forewing with first white or whitish dorsal blotch extending to above middle, the second usually with irregular row of black dots
E. scutulana (male, part)
 
13.0-23.0mm. May to early August. Forewing brownish grey, without purplish tinge, distal area often paler; pale dorsal blotches ill-defined and sometimes fused. Pronounced sexual dimorphism, male very variable in extension of white or whitish coloration. See also couplet 171 for male and couplet 179 for female.
 
169 (167)
Labial palpus blunt, one and a half times length head
 
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch variably shaped. Forewing male without costal fold. See couplets 105, 191 and 209.
-
Labial palpus pointed, two times length head
 
Forewing male with costal fold.
 
170 (169)
Forewing with white dorsal blotch subquadrate, with conspicuous blackish suffusion inwardly
 
18.0-23.0mm. Early July to early September. Forewing varying from pale greyish to brown; white dorsal blotch broadly edged blackish inwardly, outwardly edged less pronounced. Very variable species. See couplets 182 and 199.
-
Forewing with whitish dorsal blotch more triangular, without conspicuous blackish suffusion inwardly
 
17.0-23.0mm. Late June to early October. Forewing varying from brownish and ferruginous to blackish brown; whitish dorsal blotch only slightly edged darker inwardly, outwardly without distinct dark edging. One of the most variable species of Tortricidae. See couplets 182 and 200.
 
171 (166)
Forewing with ocellus wholly or for the greater part concolorous with pale dorsal blotch or only slightly darker
Epiblema scutulana (male, part)
 
See couplets 168 for male and 179 for female.
-
Forewing with ocellus distinctly darker coloured than pale dorsal blotch, sometimes distal part of ocellus narrowly whitish
 
 
172 (171)
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch clearly extending to beyond middle
 
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch at most reaching to just beyond middle
 
 
173 (172)
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch dark strigulated. Vertex yellowish or ferruginous
 
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch not dark strigulated, but usually with dark dots on dorsum, sometimes elongated. Vertex greyish yellow or dark greyish brown
 
 
174 (173)
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch yellowish, rather ill-defined at both edges, sometimes extended towards costa. Vertex ferruginous
 
12.0-19.0mm. June and July. Forewing brownish, often with blackish brown strigulation; pale areas yellowish white.
-
Forewing with dorsal blotch whitish, well-defined at both edges, often connected with costa by whitish striae
 
See couplet 177.
 
175 (173)
Forewing with white dorsal blotch elongate equilateral triangular, ill-defined outwardly. Vertex greyish yellow
 
12.0-15.0mm. June, July. Forewing varying from brown to dark greyish brown; ocellus ferruginous, edged plumbeous grey.
-
Forewing with whitish dorsal blotch triangulate or subquadrulate, well-defined at both edges. Vertex dark greyish brown.
 
 
176 (175)
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch extending to at least two-thrids width wing
 
12.0-18.0mm. Forewing brown; ocellus brownish white.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch reaching to at most two-thirds width wing
E. scutulana (female, part)
 
13.0-23.0mm. May to early August. Forewing dark brownish grey; dorsal blotch whitish, distinctly smaller than in male. For male see couplets 168 and 171.
 
177 (172)
Forewing with whitish dorsal blotch weakly strigulated, subquadrate, somewhat higher than broad
 
13.0-18.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing blackish brown; ocellus not conspicuous, whitish. See couplet 174.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch not strigulated, but dark, sometimes elongated dots may be present
 
 
178 (177)
Forewing with distal part of ocellus whitish, sometimes silvery white, proximal part suffused greyish
 
-
Forewing with ocellus unicolorous dark coloured
 
 
179 (176)
Forewing with pale distal part of ocellus somewhat extended towards apex (reaching to four-fifth from dorsum) and tornus, black dots elongated and often fused to a zigzag line
E. cirsiana (part, male)
 
12.0-20.0mm. May to early August. Forewing dark brownish grey with dorsal part slightly ferruginous; dorsal blotch white or whitish, broad and subquadrate. See for female couplet 180.
-
Forewing with whitish distal part of ocellus not extended towards apex (reaching to beyond middle from dorsum) and tornus, black dots small and distinct
E. scutulana (female, part)
 
13.0-23.0mm. May to early August. Forewing dark brownish grey; dorsal blotch whitish, distinctly smaller than in male. For male see couplets 168 and 171, for female also couplet 176.
 
180 (178)
Forewing predominantly olivaceous brown; white dorsal blotch without or only with one dark dot on dorsum, occasionally absent; ocellus with black dots not elongated and not fused
 
14.0-20.0mm. Mid May to early August. Forewing brownish grey to blackish brown; ocellus varying from ochreous to brownish grey; inner edge of dorsal blotch with acute angle to dorsum (about 60 grad.).
-
Forewing predominantly brown, not or only slightly olivaceous; white dorsal blotch with two or more dark dots on dorsum, occasionally absent; ocellus with black dots elongated and often fused to a zigzag line
E. cirsiana (part, female)
 
12.0-20.0mm. May to early August. Forewing darker than in male (see couplet 179); ocellus suffused grey; inner edge of dorsal blotch almost perpendicular to dorsum.
 
181 (163)
Forewing coloured whitish to brownish with conspicuous dark brown dorsal blotch extending from near base to termen and reaching to middle
 
Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing without such a dorsal blotch
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
182 (181)
Forewing with dark outer edge of dorsal blotch connected with blackish suffusion in distal area
 
Very variable species. See couplets 170 and 199.
-
Forewing with dark outer edge of dorsal blotch not connected with other dark markings
 
Extremely variable species. See couplets 170 and 200.
 
183 (181)
Hindwing pure white or greyish white, often dark grey distally
 
-
Hindwing dark greyish or brownish
 
 
184 (183)
Hindwing pure white in basal two-thirds, distal third blackish brown; smaller species, 12.0-14.0mm
 
Late May to early July. Forewing with basal patch and median fascia brown to blackish brown, sometimes slightly reddish-tinged; the space between them forming a paler fascia; ocellus large, broadly edged plumbeous. Similar to E. subsequana (see couplet 133) from which it differs by absence of black dashes in ocellus and straight or rounded termen forewing. Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Hindwing greyish white, weakly darker apically; larger species, 16.0-23.0mm
E. caprana (part)
 
Very variable species. See couplets 162 and 201. Forewing male with costal fold.
 
185 (183)
Forewing pale greyish brown or ferruginous brown to blackish brown, only conspicuous dark markings consisting of one or two dorsal spots
 
Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
186 (185)
Forewing pale greyish brown with one conspicuous triangular dark brown pre-tornal dorsal spot
 
15.0-20.0mm. Late May to early September.
-
Forewing varying from ferruginous brown to blackish brown, darker markings indistinct except two black dorsal markings, a narrow triangular spot before middle and a small pre-tornal spot
 
17.0-23.0mm. Late August to early October.
 
187 (185)
Forewing with basal patch not or hardly discernible
 
-
Forewing with basal patch distinctly edged, at least dorsally
 
 
188 (187)
Larger species, 21.0-30.0mm. Forewing ochreous brown
 
Forewing male with costal fold. See couplets 198 and 202.
-
Smaller species, 9.0-19.0mm. Forewing from pale yellowish grey to ferruginous or blackish brown
 
 
189 (188)
Forewing with dark brown longitudinal streaks at one-third and beyond middle
 
9.0-12.0mm. Mid May to late June. Forewing pale yellowish grey with dark brown markings.
-
Forewing without such longitudinal streaks
 
 
190 (189)
Frons and labial palpus whitish
 
Forewing almost uniformly blackish brown with markings indistinct or hardly discernible. Forewing male with costal fold. Vertex dark brown. See couplets 149, 155 and 210.
-
Frons and labial palpus from pale greyish through dark grey to ferruginous
 
Forewing male without costal fold.
 
191 (190)
Forewing greyish to ferruginous with faint traces of pale median fascia and sometimes also of pale subapical spot
E. cruciana (part)
 
12.0-15.0mm. Forewing sometimes with some silvery transverse striae; forms with almost unicolorous ferruginous wing occur. See couplet 203.
-
Forewing greyish brown without traces of pale markings
 
12.3-19.0mm. See couplets 105, 169 and 209.
 
192 (187)
Forewing with costal half of basal patch not or poorly edged, edging of dorsal half distinct
 
Forewing with basal patch often edged distinctly dorsally when it is followed by pale dorsal blotch.
-
Forewing with basal patch distinctly edged from dorsum to costa
 
 
193 (192)
Forewing with greyish dorsal blotch falcate, arising from dorsum before middle, angulated or curved medially and then extending distally towards tornus
 
Forewing male with costal fold. See couplet 164.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
194 (193)
Smaller species, 11.0-16.0mm
 
-
Larger species, 16.0-30.0mm
 
 
195 (194)
Forewing with pale ochreous dorsal blotch not connected with costa by a pale fascia; ocellus absent
 
Forewing male without costal fold. See couplet 205.
-
Forewing with rather indistinct greyish white dorsal blotch, connected with costa by a narrow pale fascia; ocellus present but weak, edged metallic plumbeous
 
Forewing male with costal fold. See couplet 148 and 208.
 
196 (194)
Forewing with ocellus, indistinctly edged metallic plumbeous, weak
 
16.0-22.0mm. Early June to mid July. Forewing pale ochreous grey irrorated brown; basal patch and median fascia brown, the latter narrow and indistinct towards costa. Forewing male with costal fold.
-
Forewing without ocellus
 
 
197 (196)
Labial palpus blunt, one and a half times longer than head
 
Forewing male without costal fold. See couplet 209.
-
Labial palpus pointed, more than two times longer than head
 
Forewing male with costal fold.
 
198 (197)
Forewing comparatively broad, length costa 2.3-2.5 times largest width wing
 
21.0-30.0mm. Forewing pale ochreous brown with poorly defined brown markings: basal patch and obsolescent median fascia. See also couplets 188 and 202.
-
Forewing narrower, length costa 2.6-2.9 times largest width wing
 
 
199 (195)
Forewing with slightly paler dorsal blotch broadly edged blackish inwardly, outwardly edged less pronounced
 
Very variable species. See couplet 170 and also couplet 182.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch not edged blackish
 
 
200 (199)
Forewing brown, slightly orangeous; triangular dorsal blotch hardly paler than ground colour
 
Extremely variable species. See couplet 170 and also couplet 182.
-
Forewing ochreous brown, greyish brown or ferruginous brown
 
 
201 (200)
Forewing brown. Hindwing almost uniform ochreous grey, somewhat darkened apically
 
18.0-25.0mm. Late August to early November. Forewing with markings dark brown, obscure and poorly defined; much less variable in coloration and markings than related species.
-
Forewing dark brown, slightly greyish or ferruginous tinged. Hindwing greyish white, weakly darkened apically
E. caprana (part)
 
16.0-23.0mm. Late June to early October. Forewing usually with markings obscure and poorly defined, but sometimes markings distinct: basal patch and irregular median fascia. Melanistic forms occur. Extremely variable species in coloration and markings forewing. See couplets 162 and 184.
 
202 (192)
Forewing with basal patch brownish, hardly darker coloured than rest of wing. Generally larger species, 21.0-32.0mm
 
Male 21.0-26.0mm, female 26.0-32.0mm. Late May to late July. Forewing ochreous brown; median fascia usually discernible on costa and medially, with small elongate whitish disco-cellular dash; ocellus absent. Forewing male with costal fold. See also couplets 188 and 198.
-
Forewing with basal patch distinctly darker than ground colour. Generally smaller species, 9.0-22.0mm
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
203 (202)
Forewing with edge of basal patch rather straight, basal patch dorsally about two times broader than costally
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid June to early August. Forewing with pale colour ochreous white to pale greyish brown; markings greyish to brown, often with faint olive or ferruginous tinge; basal patch very oblique (at an angle of 30 –45o to dorsum), median fascia confluent with subterminal fascia. A variable species. Forewing male without costal fold. See also couplet 191.
-
Forewing with edge of basal patch angulated or bent, basal patch dorsally about one and a half times broader than costally
 
 
204 (203)
Forewing with edge of basal patch angulated distinctly below middle
 
This character is even discernible in less distinctly marked forms of E. nanana (couplet 203). Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with edge of basal patch angulated in or above middle
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
205 (204)
Larger species, 13.0-17.0mm. Forewing with median fascia broadly interrupted near dorsum
 
See couplet 124.
-
Smaller species, 9.0-11.0mm. Forewing with median fascia entire from costa to tornus
 
Late May to early August. Forewing whitish, densely strigulated and often suffused brown, usually giving it a dark appearance; markings dark brown.
 
206 (204)
Forewing with edge of basal patch acutely angulated
 
Forewing male without costal fold.
-
Forewing with edge of basal patch obtusely angulated
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
207 (206)
Vertex ferruginous ochreous or yellowish grey. Forewing ferruginous brown or with ferruginous brown areas
 
-
Vertex grey or greyish white, often dark mixed, without ferruginous ochreous or yellowish grey tinge. Forewing not ferruginous brown, if brownish areas are present these are olive brown or ochreous, never ferruginous brown
 
 
208 (207)
Forewing with edge of dark basal patch perpendicular to dorsum. Vertex and thorax ferruginous ochreous
 
12.0-16.0mm. July and August (in Germany). Forewing pale brownish mixed or overlaid with ferruginous brown; pale coloration white mixed with ochreous and brown.
-
Forewing with edge of dark basal patch with oblique angle to dorsum (about 60°). Vertex and thorax yellowish grey
 
11.0-16.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing ferruginous brown; pale coloration white, suffused with ochreous and grey. See couplet 195.
 
209 (207)
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch hardly reaching to middle of wing
Z. isertana (part)
 
12.3-18.5mm. Mid June to Mid September. Forewing extremely variable in coloration and markings; colour varying from predominating greyish white to blackish brown, often mixed with ochreous or olive brown; see also couplet 169. For unicolorous blackish form see couplet 105 and for rather uniformly coloured specimens see couplet 191. Frons with whitish hair-scales; vertex with greyish brown, whitish-tipped hair-scales, in pale specimens almost unicolorous whitish.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal blotch extending distinctly to beyond middle of wing, often reaching to costa, forming a pale fascia
Z. griseana (part)
 
17.5-22.5mm. From mid June to early September. Forewing grey or greyish white, variably suffused with grey; basal patch and median fascia darker; whole wing as well as vertex and thorax with scales variably tipped whitish, these pale tipped scales absent in Z. isertana. The vast majority of the Dutch specimens belong to forms with forewing almost uniformly dark coloured or with less contrasting pale markings (see couplet 197). Frons and vertex with greyish-brown, whitish-tipped hair-scales.
 
210 (209)
Labial palpus and frons whitish
 
10.0-13.0mm. Early April to late July. Forewing dark brown, basal patch sometimes with white fascia, median fascia limited by two pairs of white or whitish striae; cilia greyish with conspicuous white subapical dash. Forewing male with costal fold. Vertex dark brown. Variable species. For dark forms see couplets 149 or 190, for pale form couplet 155.
-
Labial palpus and frons greyish brown
 
Forewing male with or without costal fold.
 
211 (210)
Forewing with costal half of pale median fascia markedly narrower and often ill-defined; pale markings greyish white, heavily suffused with blackish brown, not glossy
E. nigricana (part)
 
Forewing male with costal fold. Vertex blackish brown. Female with tip of slender ovipositor visible without dissection. See couplets 149 and 195.
-
Forewing with pale median fascia at costa not or only slightly narrower than at dorsum, at least well-defined costally; Pale fascia rather distinct, grey and whitish, somewhat glossy
 
9.0-12.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing with basal patch, dark median fascia and dark sub-terminal markings brown. Forewing male without costal fold. Vertex dark brown. Female with tip of ovipositor not visible without dissection.
 
212 (2)
Hindwing with veins 6 and 7 separate, remote at origin and running nearly parallel
 
Genus Dichrorampha. Labial palpus rather long, twice length of head. Forewing olive brown, often with more or less distinct medio-dorsal blotch. Rather small (8.5-27.0mm), with robust appearance.
-
Hindwing with 6 and 7 connate or sometimes closely approximated near origin; in males of Pammene-species 7 remote, originating from costa of cell, readily running into 8
 
 
213 (212)
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch present, conspicuous, whitish or ochreous yellow, sometimes orange-tinged
 
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch absent or only slightly paler than ground colour
 
Dichrorampha sylvicolana has in the forewing an inconspicuous ochreous yellow medio-dorsal blotch which is at least ill-defined outwardly and includes some darker strigulae (see couplet 221).
 
214 (213)
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch white or whitish with usually one dark strigula
 
8.5-11.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing brownish olive, slightly greyish tinged; medio-dorsal blotch reaching to beyond middle of wing, its apex more or less connected with first pair of strigulae. Hindwing brownish.
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch ochreous yellow (sometimes paler) or ochreous orange, without strigulae
 
Medio-dorsal blotch of forewing reaching at most to about middle of wing, exceptionally with small dark spot at dorsum.
 
215 (214)
Forewing narrow, costa somewhat more than two and a half times longer than termen; medio-dorsal blotch ochreous orange, not sharply contrasting with coloration rest of wing, its inner edge before one-third
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid May to early August. Forewing greyish brown, mixed or suffused with ochreous orange; medio-dorsal blotch not reaching middle of wing; costal strigulae ochreous orange. Hindwing dark brown to blackish brown.
-
Forewing broad, costa about two times longer than termen; medio-dorsal blotch varying from whitish, pale ochreous yellow to yellowish, usually sharply contrasting with coloration rest of wing, at least partly, its inner edge from distinctly beyond one-third to almost middle of dorsum
 
 
216 (215)
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch inwardly and outwardly sharply defined, narrow, curved outwards, whitish, pale ochreous yellow or yellowish, sometimes slightly tinged orange. Generally smaller species, 10.0-13.5mm
 
Late April to early August. Forewing blackish brown. Hindwing dark grey, paler basally.
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch only inwardly well-defined, not much higher than broad (at dorsum), hardly curved outwardly, yellowish. Generally larger species, 12.0-16.0mm
 
 
217 (216)
Hindwing greyish brown, paler basally. Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch comparatively broad and straight; costal fold in male reaching to middle of wing
 
12.0-15.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing greyish brown, suffused yellowish, the wing appearing yellowish brown.
-
Hindwing wholly greyish brown. Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch comparatively narrow and slightly curved outwardly; costal fold in male reaching to about one-third of wing
 
13.0-16.0mm. Late June to late August. Coloration forewing as in preceding species.
 
218 (213)
Forewing broad, costa shorter than twice length termen; ground colour dark purplish brown
 
10.0-15.0mm. Mid May to mid September. Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch triangular, plumbeous grey; cilia broadly white; costal fold in male reaching to about one-third of wing. Hindwing dark grey.
-
Forewing comparatively narrow, costa at least twice length termen; ground colour otherwise
 
 
219 (218)
Forewing with obscure fasciate pattern; medio-dorsal blotch plumbeous metallic, divided by a streak of the dark ground colour
 
In D. plumbagana medio-dorsal blotch often obscure because of slight difference between its colour and wing coloration. Male with costal fold.
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch without plumbeous metallic
 
Male with or without costal fold.
 
220 (219)
Forewing greyish olive
 
10.0-15.0mm. Late May and June. Forewing wholly densely irrorate with pale ochreous; costal strigulae greyish white producing distinct, somewhat metallic plumbeous striae. Forewing male with costal fold rather long, reaching to near middle.
-
Forewing greyish brown, without olive tinge
 
9.0-12.0mm. Late May and June. Forewing with pale ochreous yellow irroration, most pronounced distally; costal strigulae white, producing obscure plumbeous striae. Forewing male with costal fold to about one-third.
 
221 (219)
Smaller species, 10.0-12.0mm. Forewing with inconspicuous pale ochreous yellow medio-dorsal blotch
 
Late June to early September. The Dichrorampha species with the darkest and most robust appearance. Forewing dark greyish brown, distal half with ochreous orange irroration; medio-dorsal blotch reaching to middle, at least outwardly ill-defined and including some dark strigulae. Male with costal fold reaching nearly to middle of wing. Hindwing blackish brown.
-
Larger species, 12.0-17.0mm. Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch indistinct or absent, if present coloured brownish or greyish
 
 
222 (221)
Apex conspicuously rounded and termen distinctly indented below apex
 
Forewing male with costal fold. Frons and vertex greyish brown or yellowish grey.
-
Apex less pronounced rounded at termen, not or only slightly indented below apex
 
Forewing male without costal fold. Frons and vertex greyish brown.
 
223 (222)
Forewing with basal area without or with diffuse yellowish irroration, in the latter case pale scales not arranged in transverse rows
 
12.0-17.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing greyish brown; medio-dorsal blotch pale grey, triangular, straight-edged, margined darker outwardly; costal fold male reaching to near middle of wing. Hindwing blackish brown. Frons and vertex greyish brown.
-
Forewing wholly with yellowish-white irroration, in basal area arranged in transverse rows
 
13.0-15.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing greyish brown; medio-dorsal blotch broad, indistinct and ill-defined or absent; costal fold male reaching to middle of wing. Hindwing brownish. Frons and vertex yellowish grey.
 
224 (222)
Forewing wholly with dense diffuse pale yellow irroration
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid May to mid June. Forewing brownish grey; medio-dorsal blotch triangular, slightly paler. Hindwing blackish brown, in male paler basally.
-
Forewing with basal area without or with sparse yellow irroration
 
 
225 (224)
Forewing with sparse pale yellow irroration in basal third, in rest of wing somewhat more densely
D. aeratana (part, male)
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid May to early June. Forewing as in D. sedatana, except for the pale yellow irroration (see couplet 224). Hindwing dark brown, paler basally. For female see couplet 226.
-
Forewing without pale yellow irroration in basal third
 
 
226 (225)
Forewing with distal half densely irrorated pale yellow; termen slightly indented below apex
 
12.0-15.0mm. Late April to early July. Forewing brownish grey; medio-dorsal blotch triangular, slightly paler; costa spotted obscurely pale yellow. Hindwing brown, in male slightly paler basally.
-
Forewing with pale yellow irroration rather sparse in distal half; termen almost straight
D. aeratana (part, female)
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid May to early June. Forewing brownish grey, medio-dorsal blotch triangular, slightly paler; costa spotted distinctly pale yellow. Hindwing dark brown. See couplet 225 for male.
 
227 (212)
Forewing with metallic plumbeous or silvery white median fascia or stria, varying in width from a fine line to a rather broad band
 
Forewing with metallic fascia occasionally interrupted or present as edge of dark median fascia; often more of such striae present; medio-dorsal blotch absent.
-
Forewing without such metallic fasciae or striae in central area
 
Forewing with pale coloured dorsal blotch without metallic lustre often present.
 
228 (227)
Forewing with distal third ferruginous orange or ochreous orange
 
Forewing with basal two-thirds overlaid with dark purplish brown, brownish or slightly ferruginous.
-
Forewing with distal third not orangeous
 
 
229 (228)
Smaller species, 9.0-12.0mm.
 
Mid April to early June. Forewing dark purplish brown; median fascia indistinct, blackish brown edged distally by metallic stria; apical area beyond this deep ferruginous orange tinged with plumbeous metallic spots and striae. Hindwing dark brown, male with elongate blackish patch along vein 1c towards termen. See couplet 278.
-
Larger species, 13.0-15.0mm
 
May to early July. Forewing brownish grey, slightly tinged ferruginous; median fascia dark ferruginous brown, edged distally by bright plumbeous metallic stria; beyond this orange ochreous.
 
230 (228)
Forewing dark brown with contrasting whitish costal strigulae, one or two rather faint bluish metallic striae (sometimes obsolescent), without further markings
 
10.0-14.0mm. Mid May to mid June. Labial palpus and frons whitish. Hindwing male with rather indistinct dark grey patch along vein 1c towards termen. See couplet 284.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
231 (230)
Forewing with narrow plumbeous metallic fascia within dark basal patch, basal patch followed by plumbeous metallic fascia; median fascia followed by thick plumbeous metallic stria, interrupted in middle by blackish spot
 
9.5-12.0mm. Late April to early June. Forewing blackish brown, densely and finely irrorate with white. Hindwing dark brown, often whitish in basal half. Frons, vertex and labial palpus dark brown, the latter diffusely irrorate with white.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
232 (231)
Forewing with fascia from middle of costa to tornus (median fascia) markedly darker, at least costally
 
-
Forewing without markedly darker median fascia
 
 
233 (232)
Forewing with median fascia wholly blackish, edged silvery metallic
 
8.0-11.0mm. May and June. Forewing blackish brown, finely irrorate with whitish; median fascia often constricted or interrupted below costa. Hindwing dark brown. Frons, vertex and labial palpus blackish grey, irrorate with white.
-
Forewing with median fascia brownish, at most blackish costally
 
 
234 (233)
Forewing with basal patch obtusely angulated at middle; ocellus poorly developed, at most with three or four indistinct black dots
 
10.0-15.0mm. Late April to early June. Forewing blackish brown, irrorate with golden yellowish; four or five plumbeous metallic striae. Hindwing blackish brown, often slightly paler basally. Frons, vertex and labial palpus greyish brown. See couplet 242.
-
Forewing with basal patch acutely angulated or produced medially; ocellus well-developed with three or four black dashes, occasionally reduced to a series of dots
 
 
235 (234)
Smaller species, 10.0-12.0mm
 
Late April to early June. Forewing with pale colour pale brownish grey, thick silvery striae in distal half; darker markings dark greyish brown; basal patch well-defined, strongly angulated or produced in middle; median fascia rather distinct. Hindwing underside of male unicolorous dark brown. Labial palpus, frons and vertex dark greyish brown, irrorate with whitish.
-
Larger species, 12.5-15.0mm
 
Mid May to early July. Forewing brown with slight olive tinge, distal third mixed ochreous; metallic violaceous striae from one-third. Hindwing underside of male with whitish elongate patch along dorsum to tornus. Labial palpus, frons and vertex ochreous white, frons and vertex sometimes greyish brown.
 
236 (232)
Labial palpus and frons whitish. Forewing with ocellus absent or obsolescent
 
-
Labial palpus and frons greyish or brownish. Forewing with ocellus present, sometimes weak
 
 
237 (236)
Smaller species, 7.5-9.5mm. Forewing with comparatively distinctly angulated pale median fascia with dark central line
 
Forewing with white costal strigulae, some producing bluish plumbeous striae. See couplet 281.
-
Larger species, 9.5-12.5mm. Forewing with narrow, hardly discernible angulated paler median fascia with dark central line
S. weirana (part)
 
Forewing with white or whitish costal strigulae, sometimes weak, some producing obsolescent bluish plumbeous striae. See couplet 281.
 
238 (236)
Forewing with basal patch dorsally about one-fourth broader than costally
 
-
Forewing with basal patch dorsally about one-fifth broader than costally, sometimes dorsally and costally of equal size
 
 
239 (238)
Hindwing brownish, paler towards base and with whitish spots or patches in apical area. Forewing with five or six pale strigulae between pale median stria and apex
 
9.0-11.0mm. April and May (in England). Forewing dark greyish brown, in distal third suffused with ochreous or ferruginous; pale median stria silvery dorsally and becoming metallic plumbeous towards costa. Labial palpus, frons and vertex dark brown.
-
Hindwing brownish, paler towards base, without whitish spots or patches in apical area. Forewing with four pale strigulae between pale median fascia and apex
 
 
240 (239)
Forewing with pale median stria bisected dorsally by dark transverse line and running parallel to next metallic stria
 
8.0-14.0mm. Early May to early June. Forewing dark greyish brown, in distal third suffused with pale ochreous; the bent median pale stria narrow, metallic bluish plumbeous, white towards costa. Labial palpus, frons and vertex greyish brown.
-
Forewing with pale median stria not bisected dorsally and diverging from next metallic stria in dorsal half
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late April to mid June. Forewing dark greyish brown, irrorate or suffused with ochreous; the bent median pale stria broad, metallic bluish plumbeous. Frons, vertex and third segment labial palpus greyish brown, first and second segment of labial palpus pale grey.
 
241 (238)
Smaller species, 8.0-9.5mm. Forewing with inner edge of pale median stria almost straight
 
June. Forewing dark brown; median pale stria whitish suffused metallic plumbeous. Labial palpus, frons and vertex brownish grey. Hindwing brownish, in male whitish in cell.
-
Larger species, 9.5-15.0mm. Forewing with inner edge of pale median stria angulated, sometimes interrupted
 
 
242 (241)
Forewing with pale median stria comparatively broad, width at costa half width basal patch at costa
 
10.0-15.0mm. See couplet 234.
-
Forewing with pale median stria very narrow, width at costa less than one fifth of width basal patch at costa
 
9.5-14.0mm. Mid May to early September. Forewing blackish brown; median stria metallic plumbeous or whitish, interrupted or obsolescent in middle, bisected by dark transverse line in both costal and dorsal half. Frons, vertex and labial palpus dark greyish brown. Hindwing in both sexes greyish brown, paler basally. See couplet 248.
 
243 (227)
Forewing with pale coloured medio-dorsal blotch, without metallic lustre
 
Broad pale medio-dorsal, inwardly angulated bands extending to costal area of forewing are not considered as blotches.
-
Forewing without distinct pale coloured medio-dorsal blotch
 
 
244 (243)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot white or creamy white, well-defined, elongate (length two or more times width), usually curved, often subsected by dark line
 
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot white, greyish white, pale purplish, pale yellow or yellowish orange, not always well-defined, triangular, trapezoid or rectangular (length hardly extending width), often with more than one dark transverse line
 
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot occasionally with one transverse line, only with some dorsal dots or without dark markings.
 
245 (244)
Frons and labial palpus whitish or yellow
 
13.0-18.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing brown; pale dorsal patch creamy white, curved outwardly, divided by distinct dark transverse line.
-
Frons and labial palpus brownish or dark grey
 
 
246 (245)
Forewing with dark coloration distally and in costal area distinctly paler than rest of wing
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late April and May (in Great Britain). Forewing dark brown and blackish brown; white costal strigulae already from one third; pale dorsal patch white, long, narrow and curved outwardly, divided by distinct dark transverse line. Hindwing male white, apical and costal area dark brown; hindwing female unicolorous dark brown.
-
Forewing with dark coloration uniform dark brown or greyish brown
 
 
247 (246)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot straight or almost straight, not exceeding middle
 
Forewing with apex of pale medio-dorsal blotch occasionally curved outwardly.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot distinctly curved or broken outwardly, extending to about middle of wing or beyond
 
 
248 (247)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot represented by white line, extending to about one third (at most markedly less than middle), not bisected by dark line; first costal strigula originating beyond medio-dorsal spot
 
12.0-13.0mm. May and June (in Germany). Forewing dark brown. Hindwing in both sexes reddish brown.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot represented by whitish or plumbeous line, extending to middle of wing, bisected by dark line; first costal strigula originating before medio-dorsal spot
 
See couplet 242.
 
249 (247)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot extending to markedly beyond middle of wing; first costal strigula originating before pale medio-dorsal spot
 
Hindwing male with basal half whitish, distal half greyish brown; hindwing female wholly greyish brown.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot reaching to about middle of wing; first costal strigula originating above medio-dorsal spot
 
Hindwing male uniformly brownish or greyish brown in both sexes.
 
250 (249)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot at two thirds of dorsum, narrow, not constricted in middle, angulated in dorsal half
 
11.0-17.0mm. May and June. Forewing dark brown; pale medio-dorsal spot not or indistinctly bisected.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot at middle of dorsum, comparatively broad, slightly constricted in middle, curved smoothly (not angulated)
 
11.0-15.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing dark brown; pale medio-dorsal spot not or indistinctly bisected.
 
251 (249)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot bisected by dark line
 
13.0-19.0mm. June (in Germany also in July). Forewing brownish; pale medio-dorsal spot curved or angulated.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal spot not bisected
 
13.0-16.0mm. Late May and June. Forewing brownish; pale medio-dorsal spot curved.
 
252 (244)
Forewing with basal patch without striae
 
-
Forewing with basal patch striated, sometimes indistinct
 
 
253 (252)
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch orange or bright yellow, trapezoid or pentagonal, sometimes ill-defined
 
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch white or yellowish white, well-defined, shaped otherwise
 
 
254 (253)
Forewing without pale costal strigulae; medio-dorsal blotch distinct, yellowish orange or orange, pentagonal; in apical area a similar blotch
 
9.0-13.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing dark brown; sometimes both blotches coalescing (see couplet 276). The forewing pattern is unique for tortricid moths.
-
Forewing with distinct pale costal strigulae; medio-dorsal blotch yellow or ochreous orange, trapezoid, pentagonal or ill-defined; without distinct second large blotch in apical area
 
 
255 (254)
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch rather diffuse, coalescent with brownish orange areas of wing, but nevertheless recognizable; terminal area dark brown
 
13.0-15.0mm. Early July to late August. Forewing brownish orange, mixed olive brown in basal third; medio-dorsal blotch ochreous orange with brown dividing line, sometimes reduced.
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch sharply contrasting with dark brown ground colour
 
 
256 (255)
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch pentagonal, yellow, tinged faintly orange, distance from its inner edge to wing base equal to distance from outer edge to tornus. Generally larger species, 12.5-16.0mm
 
Mid May to early August. Forewing dark brown; medio-dorsal blotch sometimes with one or two faint dark brown dorsal strigulae; about nine slender costal strigulae, yellowish white, already from one third, usually arranged in pairs. Hindwing male with blackish elongate patch on vein 1c towards termen.
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch trapezoid, yellow, distance from its inner edge to wing base distinctly longer than distance from outer edge to tornus. Generally smaller species, 10.0-13.0mm
 
Late May to mid July. Forewing dark brown; medio-dorsal blotch without dark dorsal strigulae; about seven conspicuous yellow costal strigulae, already from one third, usually single, not arranged in pairs. Hindwing male without blackish patch on vein 1c.
 
257 (253)
Smaller species, 7.0-10.0mm. Forewing with whitish medio-dorsal blotch broad, nearly subquadrate, with two to four blackish parallel transverse lines
 
Mid May to early August. Forewing dark brownish grey; eight long white costal strigulae. Hindwing male white, apex broadly greyish brown; hindwing female greyish white basally and dark greyish brown distally. Labial palpus and frons white to greyish white.
-
Larger species, 10.0-14.0mm. Forewing with white or whitish medio-dorsal blotch, variably shaped (but not subquadrate), with one dark brown transverse line (sometimes absent). Labial palpus and frons from greyish white to blackish brown
 
 
258 (257)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch oblong, pointed. Labial palpus blackish brown
 
11.0-14.0mm. May and June (in Germany). Forewing dark brown; medio-dorsal blotch yellow or yellowish white, its tip slightly curved outwardly, without or with dividing dark brown strigula; costal strigulae whitish, pale grey or yellowish. Hindwing dark brown; cubital pecten of male with black claviform hair-scales.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch subtriangular with height and width about equal. Labial palpus varying from white to greyish brown
 
Forewing with tip medio-dorsal blotch slightly or not curved outwardly.
 
259 (258)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch varying from pure white to yellowish white, its tip slightly curved outwardly; distal half of dark brown wing suffused with ochreous or golden brown scales
 
11.0-12.5mm. Late July to mid September. Medio-dorsal blotch of forewing with one dorsal dividing dark brown strigula; costal strigulae yellowish white, fine.
-
Forewing with medio-dorsal blotch pure white, its tip not curved outwardly; distal half of dark greyish brown wing not suffused with ochreous or golden brown scales.
 
10.0-12.5mm. July to September (in Germany). Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch usually without dividing dark dorsal stria or dorsal dot; costal strigulae ochreous white.
 
260 (252)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch pale purplish, pale ochreous red or pale brownish red, not conspicuous
 
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch white or greyish white, sometimes indistinct
 
 
261 (260)
Larger species, 16.0-20.0mm. Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch rather distinct
 
Mid July to late August. Vertex pale ferruginous. Forewing greyish brown with reddish tinge, variably suffused brownish ; pale medio-dorsal blotch pale ochreous, preceded and followed by dark brown suffusion, with brownish dividing dorsal strigulae (one well-developed); costal strigulae fine, pale ochreous.
-
Smaller species, 9.0-14.0mm. Forewing with indistinct pale medio-dorsal blotch
 
 
262 (261)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch brownish red. Labial palpus ferruginous
 
12.0-14.0mm. May and June (in England). Forewing brownish red, densely striated dark brown; pale medio-dorsal blotch preceded and followed by brownish suffusion, with three dark brown dividing dorsal strigulae. Frons and vertex ferruginous. See couplet 294.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch tinged pale purplish. Labial palpus pale yellow or whitish
 
 
263 (262)
Forewing distinctly strigulated yellowish white distally, apex and termen ochreous orange. Hindwing brownish, male with blackish scales in tornal area
 
9.0-12.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing pinky ochreous heavily mixed and striated dark brown; pale medio-dorsal blotch strigulated. Labial palpus pale yellow or whitish; frons and vertex brown. See couplet 289.
-
Forewing only distally sometimes indistinctly strigulated white, rather uniformly and strongly suffused and strigulated dark purplish brown. Hindwing greyish brown, male without blackish scales in tornal area
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch with three dividing lines. Labial palpus and frons whitish, vertex greyish ochreous.
 
264 (260)
Forewing with width of pale medio-dorsal blotch at dorsum less than three tenth of length dorsum
 
-
Forewing with width of pale medio-dorsal blotch at dorsum three tenth of length dorsum
 
 
265 (264)
Hindwing of both sexes whitish with terminal margin broadly suffused with dark greyish brown
 
14.0-17.0mm. Late March to early June. Forewing comparatively elongate and narrow, blackish brown, costa with darker strigulae; pale medio-dorsal blotch obscure, bisected by grey strigula.
-
Hindwing brown or greyish brown, often paler in basal area
 
 
266 (265)
Forewing rather narrow, length costa 2.5 or more times greatest width wing; costal strigulae usually indiscernible; pale grey medio-dorsal blotch slightly before middle of dorsum
 
9.5-12.0mm. Late April to early June. Forewing blackish brown; pale medio-dorsal blotch usually indistinct, subquadrate with two or three blackish brown strigulae and often extending towards costa as a greyish fascia.
-
Forewing broader, length costa 2.4 times greatest width wing or less; costal strigulae distinct; dorsal blotch white or whitish (sometimes suffused with greyish) and in middle of dorsum
 
 
267 (266)
Forewing with ocellus including usually six or seven black dashes, often fractured or sometimes contiguous, preceded by two or three sometimes contiguous black spots
P. fasciana (part)
 
11.5-17.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing grey or dark grey mixed ochreous white, striated dark grey; costal strigulae whitish; pale medio-dorsal blotch usually ochreous white, but variable in size, shape and colour and sometimes obscured by greyish suffusion. In this form pale medio-dorsal blotch comparatively very small. See also couplets 269 and 289.
-
Forewing with ocellus including only three or four dark brown or black dashes, not preceded by two or three black dots
 
 
268 (267)
Larger species, 12.0-15.0mm. Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch with one rather distinct dark transverse line and one or two less distinct ones
P. obscurana (part)
 
Late May to early July. Forewing blackish grey, apical third of costa with minute greyish white strigulae; pale medio-dorsal blotch quadrate. Hindwing male upper side with elongate black patch along basal half of costa (beneath forewing). See couplet 296.
-
Smaller species, 10.5-12.0mm. Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch bisected by distinct dark transverse line
 
May (abroad also in June). Forewing brown to blackish brown; apical half of costa with small whitish strigulae; pale medio-dorsal blotch pentagonal. Hindwing male upper side without black patch along costa.
 
269 (264)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch reaching to far beyond middle of wing and often extending towards apical area
P. fasciana (part)
 
11.5-17.0mm. Forewing grey mixed ochreous white; costal strigulae whitish. See couplets 267 and 289.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch shorter, not reaching to middle of wing
 
 
270 (269)
Forewing with dark distal area irrorate or striated with ochreous, ochreous orange or reddish brown
 
-
Forewing with dark distal area not irrorate or striated with ochreous, ochreous orange or reddish brown
 
 
271 (270)
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch pale grey, without small projection towards costa, marked with two or three rather straight or slightly curved blackish striae, usually reduced and diffuse
 
9.0-13.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing dark brown; pale medio-dorsal blotch pentagonal. Hindwing male pale greyish brown, bordered dark brown; in female uniformly dark greyish brown.
-
Forewing with pale medio-dorsal blotch pure white, with small, more or less pronounced projection towards costa, bisected by one grey strigula, sharply broken towards termen, sometimes reduced to some dark dots
 
10.0-14.0mm. May and September. Forewing dark brown; pale medio-dorsal blotch pentagonal. Hindwing male dark greyish brown, slightly paler basally; in female uniformly dark greyish brown.
 
272 (270)
Forewing with angulated subterminal series of small black dots, incorporating the five or six black dashes of ocellus; small white discocellular spot present; pale medio-dorsal blotch whitish, rather obscure
 
11.0-15.0mm. March to September (in Great Britain); alien. Forewing blackish brown with very fine whitish costal strigulae. Hindwing male blackish brown with pale grey or whitish spot along middle of wing; in female uniformly blackish brown.
-
Forewing without sub-terminal series of black dots; white discocellular spot absent; white medio-dorsal blotch distinct
 
 
273 (272)
Smaller species, 10.0-13.0mm. Forewing with white medio-dorsal blotch reaching to middle of wing
 
Late March to early June. Forewing blackish brown, sometimes ochreous tinged; irregularly marked black and whitish; distinct whitish costal strigulae from before middle of costa; white medio-dorsal blotch conspicuous, subquadrate, more or less strigulate with blackish, often indistinctly produced towards costa. Hindwing male bordered blackish brown, white basally, rest of wing greyish brown; in female greyish brown, slightly paler basally.
-
Larger species, 13.0-16.0mm. Forewing with whitish medio-dorsal blotch reaching to two fifth of wing
 
May and June (in Germany). Forewing rather uniformly blackish brown, costal strigulae fine, whitish; white medio-dorsal blotch subquadrate with indistinct grey dorsal strigulae. Hindwing in both sexes brownish.
 
274 (243)
Forewing with basal area not striated or marked paler
 
-
Forewing with basal area with pale striae or other pale markings, sometimes less distinct
 
 
275 (274)
Forewing almost wholly orange, yellowish orange or ferruginous orange, or ochreous orange suffusion restricted to distal third or only to termen and apex
 
-
Forewing without orangeous coloration
 
 
276 (275)
Forewing without ocellus and pale costal strigulae; yellowish orange or orange except basal area and proximal two thirds of costal margin which are dark brown
P. aurana (part)
 
A characteristic form of this species, which usually has the forewing dark brown with two discrete yellowish orange or orange blotches (see couplet 254).
-
Forewing usually with ocellus and pale costal strigulae; wholly ferruginous orange or ochreous orange coloration restricted to distal third of wing
 
 
277 (276)
Forewing wholly ferruginous orange; ocellus well-developed, containing two or three fine black dashes
 
11.0-17.0mm. Late May to early September. Reminiscent of Eucosma-species.
-
Forewing with ochreous orange coloration restricted to distal third of wing; ocellus with four or five black dashes (usually connected) or dashes absent
 
 
278 (277)
Forewing with ocellus well-developed, edged with silvery striae laterally, with four or five black dashes (usually connected); costal strigulae rather distinct, white
 
Male 13.0-16.0mm, female 11.0-13.0mm. Late May and June (in England). Forewing blackish brown.
-
Forewing with ocellus obsolete, without dark dashes and only indicated by metallic striae; pale costal strigulae absent or obscure
 
See couplet 229.
 
279 (275)
Forewing with ground colour uniform pale grey, the only markings being some conspicuous black dots and white costal strigulae in apical half of costa
 
14.0-18.0mm. Early June to early August. The forewing pattern is characteristic among tortricid moths.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
280 (279)
Forewing with paler median fascia, sometimes hardly discernible
 
Labial palpus and frons whitish.
-
Forewing without paler median fascia
 
Labial palpus and frons whitish, greyish or greyish brown.
 
281 (280)
Smaller species, 7.5-9.5mm. Forewing with comparatively well-defined paler median fascia with dark central line
 
Late May to early September. Forewing blackish brown; white costal strigulae, some producing bluish plumbeous striae. See also couplet 237.
-
Larger species, 9.5-12.5mm. Forewing with narrow, hardly or not discernible paler median fascia with dark central line
S. weirana (part)
 
Mid May to early September. Forewing blackish brown; white costal strigulae, sometimes weak. See also couplet 237.
 
282 (280)
Labial palpus and frons dark greyish brown
 
10.0-15.0mm. Early June to early September. Forewing blackish brown with whitish irroration in distal and medio-dorsal areas, pale costal strigulae obscure; minute white discocellular spot; ocellus indistinct, with two to four black dashes.
-
Labial palpus and frons whitish to grey
 
 
283 (282)
Forewing dark purplish brown; costal strigulae indistinct
 
12.0-14.0mm. Early June to early July. Forewing with ocellus obscure, including three or four black spots. Labial palpus and frons greyish white.
-
Forewing without purplish tinge; costal strigulae distinct
 
 
284 (283)
Forewing without ocellus; costal strigulae whitish, sharply contrasting. Labial palpus and frons whitish
 
Specimens without bluish metallic stria in forewing. See couplet 230.
-
Forewing with ocellus, sometimes obscure, including blackish dashes or spots; costal strigulae rather distinct. Labial palpus and frons grey or greyish white (occasionally somewhat ochreous)
 
 
285 (284)
Forewing with ocellus preceded by black suffusion, occasionally reduced and fragmented
 
Forewing with at least basal two-thirds rather uniformly dark greyish brown; ocellus large, containing four or five black dashes; almost unicolorous blackish brown specimens occur. Labial palpus grey or pale grey, whitish inwardly; frons grey. Common dark form of this species. See couplet 289.
-
Forewing with ocellus not preceded by black suffusion
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid May to mid July. Forewing dark brown, usually with slight olive tinge; ocellus obscure, including three or four black spots. Hindwing male with well-developed dorsal fold on upper side along inner margin from base to tornus, fringed with whitish scales. Labial palpus and frons greyish white.
 
286 (274)
Forewing at least with one quarter coloured creamy white or greyish white
 
-
Forewing predominantly ochreous grey, reddish brown or darker
 
To this alternative belong also species with pale ground colour forewing, but densely striated darker.
 
287 (286)
Forewing with pale costal strigulae absent or obsolescent
 
10.5-15.0mm. Late May and June. Forewing white or ochreous white, costa and dorsum strigulated dark grey. Markings brownish grey mixed with blackish: basal patch striated whitish or pale greyish, median fascia rudimentary in costal half and distal quarter of wing. Male with hindwing white, apex and termen suffused dark greyish brown; in female hindwing uniformly dark greyish brown.
-
Forewing with distinct pale costal strigulae present
 
 
288 (287)
Forewing with dark distal area edged angulated inwardly
C. succedana (part)
 
Paler form of this species. Forewing with greyish basal patch spotted greyish white. See couplet 297.
-
Forewing with dark distal area edged straight or rounded inwardly, sometimes edged indistinctly towards costa
 
 
289 (288)
Forewing with ocellus preceded by distinct black suffusion, occasionally reduced or fragmented; ocellus containing four or five black dashes
C. splendana (part)
 
11.0-22.0mm. Mid June to mid September. The pale, most common form of this species. Forewing grey, more or less irrorated whitish; basal patch slightly darker with indistinct paler striae. See couplet 285.
-
Forewing with ocellus preceded by three black spots; ocellus with variable series of usually six or seven black dashes, often fractured or sometimes contiguous
 
See couplets 267 and 269.
 
290 (286)
Forewing dark greyish brown with characteristic black markings: a triangular pre-tornal marking (often fragmented), a crescent-shaped black marking above it and a very narrow transverse fascia from middle of dorsum to middle of costa; a small white disco-cellular spot
 
Male 15.0-16.0mm, female 19.0-20.0mm; alien. Also characteristic is the hindwing of the male, which is slightly reduced and has a circular pocket of black hair-scales overlaid with broad whitish scales in anal angle. Hind tibia of male heavily tufted.
-
Forewing with black markings otherwise; white discocellular spot absent
 
 
291 (290)
Forewing with ocellus well-developed, including three or four black dashes, alternating with ferruginous orange streaks
 
12.0-18.0mm. Mid May to early October. Forewing ferruginous ochreous with metallic plumbeous striae, strigulation and markings dark brown.
-
Forewing with ocellus obscure or coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
292 (291)
Forewing with apex and termen ochreous orange
 
Form without distinct pale medio-dorsal blotch. See couplet 262.
-
Forewing with apex and termen not ochreous orange
 
 
293 (292)
Forewing wholly densely striated with darker (grey or reddish brown) and lighter (pale ochreous or pale ferruginous) striae
 
-
Forewing not wholly striated with darker and lighter coloured striae, at most only striated darker
 
 
294 (293)
Forewing with pronounced brownish red tinge
 
Labial palpus and frons ferruginous. Forewing with ocellus poorly developed, including three or four black dashes. Form without distinct pale medio-dorsal blotch. See couplet 262.
-
Forewing ochreous grey without brownish red tinge
 
10.0-13.0mm. Early June to early July. Labial palpus and frons whitish. Forewing dark greyish brown, finely and densely irrorated pale ochreous grey, forming darker and paler striae; ocellus obscure, including two or three black dashes.
 
295 (293)
Forewing with ocellus conspicuously edged with thick coppery or golden metallic striae, without black dots (sometimes only some black scales along the veins)
 
14.0-22.0mm. Late April to mid September. Forewing dark brown, finely irrorated whitish, indistinctly striated darker, distal third of wing suffused blackish brown. Hindwing male with submedian groove or fold from base containing dark cubital pecten.
-
Forewing with ocellus edged with metallic plumbeous striae, containing several black dots or dashes
 
 
296 (295)
Labial palpus and frons whitish grey. Forewing with dark basal patch not discernible except dorsally
 
Form without distinct pale coloured medio-dorsal blotch. See couplet 268.
-
Labial palpus and frons greyish brown. Forewing with dark basal patch present, but sometimes ill-defined
 
 
297 (296)
Forewing with edge of basal patch sharply angulated outwardly; ocellus preceded by greyish brown suffusion
 
10.5-19.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing dark brown irrorated whitish, almost whole wing striated darker; greyish median fascia reaching costa at two fifth and extending to apical area; ocellus including three or four, often diffuse black dashes. Hindwing greyish brown, male on upperside with elongate greyish white patch along inner margin; female with hindwing unicolorous greyish brown.
-
Forewing with edge of basal patch irregular; ocellus preceded by conspicuous black suffusion
C. succedana (part)
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late April to early August. Forewing pale grey or whitish between brownish basal patch and dark brown or blackish brown angulated median fascia, distal quarter of wing brownish; ocellus edged pale metallic plumbeous, including and preceded by some black marks. Hindwing of male white, darker distally; female with hindwing unicolorous greyish brown. See couplet 288.
 

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