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Toelichting

41.1 Tortricinae

1
Forewing with vein 1c absent or obsolete throughout
2
 
Forewing with 1a and 1b originating separated from base, but often converging and confluent for more than two-thirds. The species keying out here have formerly been considered as a separate family, Cochylidae.
-
Forewing with vein 1c at least distinct near posterior margin
 
Forewing with 1a and 1b originating separated from base, but often converging and confluent for more than two-thirds.
 
2 (1)
Labial palpus about two and a half times length eye-diameter or somewhat more
3
 
-
Labial palpus about two times eye-diameter or less
8
 
 
3 (2)
Vertex white
4
 
-
Vertex from yellow to ochreous
5
 
 
4 (3)
Forewing with numerous conspicuous scale-tufts; without ferruginous apical spot; basal area greyish brown
 
16.0-22.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing greyish brown with a complicated pattern of pale and darker markings.
-
Forewing with few semi-erect tufts; conspicuous ferruginous apical spot; basal area whitish
 
15.0-17.0mm. June and early July. Forewing whitish; an incomplete median fascia and a broad terminal fascia, both dark brown.
 
5 (3)
Forewing pale yellow or yellow with dark ferruginous markings
6
 
-
Forewing blackish brown or ochreous to brown
7
 
 
6 (5)
Forewing with terminal cilia unicolorous dark ferruginous
 
15.0-24.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing bright yellow; confluent markings in distal third enclose a semicircular patch of ground colour.
-
Forewing with terminal cilia yellowish, near tornus ferruginous
 
15.0-24.0mm. May to early September. Forewing pale yellow; a ferruginous streak from disc beyond middle to tornus, sometimes additional dark markings in distal half of wing. In worn specimens the forewing may get a whitish appearance.
 
7 (5)
Smaller species, 11.0-15.0mm. Forewing blackish grey and dark brown with bright ochreous yellow basal blotch
 
Mid May to early July. Dark distal two-thirds of forewing with leaden metallic striae and bright ochreous yellow costal spot beyond middle.
-
Larger species, 17.0-22.0mm. Forewing from pale ochreous to pale brown, more or less sprinkled or strigulated brownish
 
Mid June to early August. Forewing sometimes unicolorous, unmarked.
 
8 (2)
Forewing with small but well-defined dark basal patch, complete from dorsum to costa
9
 
-
Forewing without such a dark basal patch
 
 
9 (8)
Forewing deep yellow; basal patch and the three fasciae shining ferruginous violet
 
9.0-13.0mm. Late June to late August.
-
Forewing white or whitish; basal patch and the two fasciae blackish brown or dark brown
 
 
10 (9)
Frons, vertex and thorax blackish brown, sometimes slightly olive-tinged
 
12.0-16.0mm. Mid May to early September. Forewing with irregular median fascia, narrow terminal fascia and cilia all blackish brown.
-
Frons and vertex white, sometimes vertex blackish grey posteriorly; thorax blackish grey
 
11.0-15.0mm. Late May to late August. Forewing with irregular dark brown median fascia, blackish towards costa and with narrow dark grey terminal fascia and cilia.
 
11 (8)
Forewing with ground colour bright or pale yellow.
 
Forewing usually with two distinct ferruginous brown fasciae, often not complete.
-
Forewing with ground colour otherwise, whitish, orange, silvery, but usually ochreous or brownish
 
Here belong species with purplish markings.
 
12 (11)
Forewing without well-recognizable dark fasciae, but with a characteristic chequered pattern, consisting of four large spots of the yellow ground colour, two costals and two dorsals
 
11.0-17.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing with spots variably edged with metallic plumbeous. Very variable species; dark markings of forewing may be enlarged and confluent or reduced, also the ferruginous markings occasionally paler coloured.
-
Forewing with one or two fasciae
 
 
13 (12)
Forewing with only the median fascia present, distinct, obtusely angulated near middle
 
Forewing with median fascia interrupted below costa.
-
Forewing with two fasciae, a median, often incomplete not angulate near middle, and a post-median
 
 
14 (13)
General coloration forewing yellowish; median fascia more obtusely angled (140-150 degrees) inwards; silvery white spots in distal area coalesce forming continuous slightly sinuate striae
 
11.0-17.0mm. May to August. Very similar to A. piercei.
-
General coloration forewing usually more brownish; median fascia more strongly angulated (100-120 degrees inwards); silvery white spots in distal area forming broken striae
 
15.0-24.0mm. May to August.
 
15 (13)
Forewing comparatively broad, length costa two to two and a half times broadest width of wing; costa somewhat convex, apex rounded, termen almost at right angles to costa; distinct dark elongate patch at base of costa
 
-
Forewing comparatively narrow, length costa three times broadest width of wing; costa almost straight, apex pointed, termen with oblique angle to costa; without dark patch at base of costa
 
 
16 (15)
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia at an angle of 60 to 70 degrees to dorsum, median fascia abruptly dilated near dorsum
 
15.0-19.0mm. Forewing with median fascia almost invariably clearly interrupted below costa. Late June to early September.
-
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia almost at right angles to dorsum, median fascia hardly dilated near dorsum
 
14.0-17.0mm. Forewing with median fascia usually not clearly interrupted. Mid May to mid July.
 
17 (15)
Forewing with both median and postmedian fascia broadly interrupted
 
-
Forewing with postmedian fascia entire or narrowly interrupted near costa
 
 
18 (17)
Forewing with median fascia angulate above middle; base of costa without dark suffusion
 
12.0-20.0mm. Early May to early September. Forewing with ground colour pale yellowish, irregularly suffused with pale ochreous yellow. See couplet 26.
-
Forewing with median fascia almost straight; base of costa with dark suffusion
A. tornella (part)
 
See couplet 22.
 
19 (17)
Forewing with median fascia incomplete, reaching from dorsum to beyond middle
 
-
Forewing with median fascia entire or narrowly interrupted near costa
 
 
20 (19)
Forewing with postmedian fascia entire, of equal width
 
12.0-15.0mm. Mid July to early September.
-
Forewing with postmedian fascia not reaching costa, interrupted or tapered towards costa
 
15.0-19.0mm. July and August (in Central Europe).
 
21 (19)
Forewing with dorsal end of median fascia beneath costal end of postmedian fascia; reaching costa at an angle of 30-45 degrees
 
13.0-19.0mm. Early July to early August. Forewing with both fasciae entire.
-
Forewing with dorsal end of median fascia beyond costal end of postmedian fascia; postmedian fascia reaching costa at an angle of about 60 degrees
 
 
22 (21)
Forewing with brownish suffusion at base of costa
A. tornella (part)
 
14.0-17.0mm. May to July (in Central Europe). Forewing with fasciae variable: narrow or broad, entire or incomplete (occasionally absent), usually median fascia rather complete. See couplet 18.
-
Forewing without brownish suffusion at base of costa
 
14.0-17.0mm. June and July (in Britain). Forewing with fasciae very constant: median fascia constricted or interrupted below costa, postmedian fascia entire and well-developed.
 
23 (11)
Forewing lustrous silvery white with four variable slender, deep ochreous fasciae
 
12.0-17.0mm. Mid June to early September.
-
Forewing with one or two dark fasciae
 
 
24 (23)
Forewing with two fasciae, a median and a postmedian
 
-
Forewing with one fascia, a median, and sometimes a second, terminal fascia
 
 
25 (24)
Forewing pale ochreous brown, length costa two to two and a half times broadest width of wing, termen almost at right angles to costa; distinct dark elongate patch at base of costa
 
-
Forewing whitish or ochreous olive, narrow, length costa three times broadest width of wing, termen with oblique angle to costa; without dark patch at base of costa
 
 
26 (25)
Forewing ochreous yellow, strongly tinged with olive
A. williana (part)
 
10.0-17.0mm. Late April to early June (in Britain to August). Forewing variably suffused with grey; median fascia narrow, poorly defined, often very obscure, usually interrupted near costa, postmedian fascia also narrow and obscure, usually entire. See couplet 35.
-
Forewing whitish, slightly tinged ochreous yellow
 
See couplet 18.
 
27 (24)
Forewing with ground colour bright orange with yellowish tinge
 
-
Forewing with ground colour whitish silvery, ochreous, greyish or brownish
 
 
28 (27)
Forewing with cilia yellowish orange, dark grey at tornus
 
13.0-19.0mm. Late May and June. Forewing with rather broad median and terminal fasciae blackish brown mixed leaden metallic.
-
Forewing with cilia greyish brown
 
12.0-15.0mm. June and July (in Central Europe). Forewing with broad median and terminal fasciae ferruginous brown, edged darker.
 
29 (27)
Forewing with a conspicuous and uninterrupted process from median fascia to tornus
 
19.0-23.0mm. May to July. Forewing creamy to ochreous with dark brown markings. A similar dorsal process of median fascia occurs in Aethes hartmanniana, but this process is interrupted.
-
Forewing without conspicuous and uninterrupted process from median fascia to tornus
 
 
30 (29)
Forewing with dark terminal fascia
 
Terminal fascia of forewing dark grey, mixed black and ochreous.
-
Forewing without dark terminal fascia
 
The forewing may be extensively suffused with ochreous and grey distally (Cochylidia rupicola, see couplet 41).
 
31 (30)
Vertex whitish, mixed greyish. Forewing with terminal fascia narrower towards tornus, widening towards costa
 
12.0-17.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with ground colour whitish, strigulated and blotched ochreous; median fascia blackish brown, moderately broad, entire. Hindwing male pale grey, whitish basally, or uniformly grey; hindwing female uniformly dark grey.
-
Vertex ochreous yellow. Forewing with terminal fascia starting as a stria to one-third of termen, then widening towards apical area
 
12.0-15.0mm. May and July, August (in Central Europe). Forewing creamy white with ochreous suffusion; median fascia blackish brown, moderately broad, entire. Hindwing brownish.
 
32 (30)
Forewing with broad median fascia of blackish irroration and strigulae, concentrations of black on costa and in median fold
 
9.0-13.0mm. Late April to mid July. Forewing white suffused ochreous; median fascia entire with outer margin outward-oblique from costa and inner margin diffuse and often confluent with dark basal markings. Vertex white.
-
Forewing with median fascia without blackish suffusion or this only present near dorsum
 
 
33 (32)
Forewing with median fascia strongly reduced and ill-defined
 
-
Forewing with median fascia entire or at most costal half obsolescent or absent
 
 
34 (33)
Forewing underside with four or five ochreous yellow costal spots in apical part
 
11.0-14.0mm. Form with forewing indistinctly marked. See couplets 50 and 55.
-
Forewing underside without yellowish costal spots
 
 
35 (34)
Vertex yellowish olive or ochreous olive mixed with black
 
10.0-17.0mm. Hindwing male varying from nearly white to greyish brown, paler basally; hindwing female wholly suffused with greyish brown, sometimes paler basally. See couplet 26.
-
Vertex ochreous or ochreous yellow, not mixed with black
 
Hindwing grey.
 
36 (35)
Smaller species, 8.5-10.5mm
 
Forewing with dark markings variably suffused or obliterated with grey, sometimes appearing unicolorous olive brown, the only distinct marking being the diffuse dark longitudinal patch representing the reduced median fascia; radial veins often finely lined with blackish, forming a reticulate pattern. See also couplet 56.
-
Larger species, 10.5-14.0mm
 
Forewing with similar reductions in markings as in Gynnidomorpha vectisana, but they remain usually more distinct; almost unicolorous ochreous specimens occur, as well as melanistic forms. See also couplet 56.
 
37 (33)
Forewing with markings bordered with silvery spots, often coalescing and forming striae, in distal area a series of such spots, forming broken or continuous striae
 
-
Forewing without such silvery spots or striae
 
 
38 (37)
Forewing variably suffused with rose-pink, wholly or sometimes weakly distally
 
-
Forewing without rosy tinge
 
Cochylis hybridella sometimes has the forewing faintly rosy-tinged (see couplet 54).
 
39 (38)
Forewing with a blackish or dark grey subapical line and a paler subbasal line on cilia
 
10.0-17.0mm. Late June to mid August. Forewing with ground colour whitish yellow, especially with rose-pink in costal and distal areas; median fascia brownish, heavily suffused blackish dorsally; cilia ochreous yellow.
-
Forewing without subapical line on cilia
 
In forewing only subbasal line present.
 
40 (39)
Forewing with ground colour ochreous white, heavily suffused with bright rose-pink, especially in costal and distal areas
 
11.0-17.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with median fascia ochreous brown, mixed pinkish, outward-oblique from dorsum to beyond middle, obsolescent costally; cilia ochreous yellow with darker subbasal line.
-
Forewing with ground colour greyish ochreous white, weakly flushed with pink, especially distally
 
10.0-15.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with median fascia brownish, greyish towards costa, outward-oblique from dorsum to beyond middle, reduced to a bar or spot costally; cilia creamy yellow with well-defined blackish or dark grey subbasal line. See couplet 46.
 
41 (38)
Larger species, 15.0-25.0mm
 
Forewing with costa almost straight.
-
Smaller species, 9.0-15.0mm
 
Forewing with costa more or less arched.
 
42 (41)
Forewing with ground colour pale ochreous brown to greyish brown; median fascia ferruginous or brown
 
15.0-17.0mm. April to August (in Central Europe). Forewing with median fascia not reaching to costa.
-
Forewing with ground colour whitish to creamy, weakly suffused and strigulated pale ochreous; median fascia ochreous brown
 
 
43 (42)
In forewing median fascia with two blackish scale-tufts costad of median fold and two such tufts a little below
 
18.0-25.0mm. Moths in May, July and August; in Britain July and August. Forewing with median fascia well-developed, but interrupted near costa or not reaching to costa.
-
In forewing median fascia without blackish scale-tufts
 
13.0-21.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with median fascia strongly developed in dorsal half, obsolescent in costal half.
 
44 (41)
Forewing extensively suffused ochreous and dark grey, only basal area pale: ochreous yellow with greyish tinge (costa dark); markings olive brown, variably distinct
 
11.0-15.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing with apex rounded; median fascia rather ill-defined, broad, reduced and darkened with blackish grey suffusion towards costa; in dark specimens the markings may appear black. Hindwing blackish grey. Vertex creamy white. Thorax ochreous to brown.
-
Forewing with pale colour not almost exclusively restricted to basal area
 
In Gynnidomorpha permixtana (see couplet 51) forewing sometimes similarly suffused dark in distal two-thirds as in Cochylidia rupicola. However, in the latter species vertex creamy white and thorax ochreous to brown and in Gynnidomorpha permixtana vertex and thorax both ochreous yellow. Moreover, hindwing in Cochylidia rupicola blackish grey and in Gynnidomorpha permixtana grey.
 
45 (44)
Forewing with cilia creamy yellow or yellow with a faint ochreous or ferruginous tinge
 
-
Forewing with cilia ochreous, usually pale ochreous, not yellowish tinged
 
 
46 (45)
Forewing with median fascia edged whitish; cilia yellow, slightly tinged ochreous or ferruginous, with brownish subbasal line
 
11.0-15.0mm. Mid May to early September. Forewing usually whitish or ochreous white, sometimes reddish ochreous, occasionally tinged with purplish; median fascia brownish, greyish dorsally, outward-oblique from dorsum, obsolescent on costa.
-
Forewing with median fascia not edged whitish; cilia creamy yellow with well-defined blackish or dark grey subbasal line
 
See couplet 40.
 
47 (45)
Forewing with median fascia entire and conspicuous, strongly dilated towards costa, costally almost two times broader than dorsally
 
11.0-15.0mm. Mid May to mid August. Forewing whitish ochreous, clouded and strigulated darker ochreous; median fascia dark grey, mixed with blackish and in dorsal half variably mixed with ferruginous.
-
Forewing with median fascia entire or incomplete, the entire fascia not or only slightly dilated costally
 
 
48 (47)
Forewing with median fascia entire, from dorsum to costa
 
Forewing with median fascia occasionally less distinct in costal area as in Phalonidia manniana (see couplet 49).
-
Forewing with median fascia interrupted or obsolescent near costa, but often with stronger reductions
 
 
49 (48)
Forewing with median fascia ochreous brown, in dorsal part blackish with ochreous brown admixture
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing whitish with ochreous or yellowish shades; median fascia often less distinct in costal part, angulated above middle; small dark pre-apical spot, produced as a thick stria extending to termen above tornus; small but distinct black tornal spot; terminal area not suffused. Underside forewing with ochreous costal scratches. Vertex whitish ochreous or ochreous yellow. Thorax whitish to yellowish olive.
-
Forewing with median fascia not darkened with blackish suffusion in dorsal part
 
Forewing with median fascia occasionally darkened with grey at costa and on dorsum; sometimes an indistinct dark tornal spot.
 
50 (49)
Forewing with inner side of median fascia nearly straight or only slightly curved, not angulated
 
11.0-14.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing pale ochreous; median fascia ochreous brown, suffused greyish on costa and dorsum, blackish scales in middle sometimes forming a stripe or spot; pre-apical spot usually strigulated or fractured in tornal area; dark tornal spot absent; terminal area not suffused. Underside forewing with ochreous yellow costal spots. Thorax and vertex pale ochreous to brownish. See couplets 34 and 55.
-
Forewing with inner side of median fascia angulated below costa
 
 
51 (50)
Forewing with distal half suffused greyish brown, varying in extent and intensity; sub-terminal fascia ill-defined and incomplete
 
10.0-14.5mm. May to August. Forewing with ground colour pale ochreous; median fascia well-defined, ochreous brown, often darkened with grey at costa and on dorsum, a small patch of dark grey suffusion at middle of outer margin, emitting a dark streak from angle to tornal area; indistinct dark tornal spot. Hindwing grey. Vertex and thorax pale ochreous yellow.
-
Forewing with distal half not suffused greyish brown; sub-terminal fascia from costa to termen above tornus, usually well-defined
 
11.0-14.0mm. Early June to August. Forewing with ground colour pale ochreous; median fascia well-defined, ochreous brown, not darkened with grey, with two indistinct, diffuse blackish patches, outer margin edged with plumbeous, sometimes emitting a dark streak from angle to tornal area, small dark tornal spot. Vertex pale ochreous, thorax dark brown.
 
52 (48)
Vertex white or whitish, often with slight yellowish tinge
 
-
Vertex ochreous yellow or darker
 
 
53 (52)
Thorax dark grey, yellowish grey anteriorly
 
10.0-15.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing ochreous white with faint ochreous grey strigulae; median fascia blackish brown, well-developed from dorsum to middle, fractured or obsolescent in costal half.
-
Thorax white or whitish, occasionally somewhat marked dark
 
 
54 (53)
Forewing with dorsal half of median fascia ferruginous mixed with black or grey
 
12.0-15.0mm. Mid June to early August. Forewing ochreous white; median fascia narrow on costa and widely interrupted beneath it, costal part greyish. Hindwing pale grey.
-
Forewing with median fascia blackish grey
 
12.0-15.0mm. Late April to mid August. Forewing white; median fascia reduced in costal half. Hindwing pale greyish brown, paler basally.
 
55 (52)
Forewing underside with four or five ochreous yellow costal spots in apical part
 
See couplets 34 and 50.
-
Forewing underside without yellowish costal spots
 
 
56 (55)
Smaller species, 9.0-11.0mm
G. vectisana (part)
 
Forewing with median fascia obscure, blackish brown, often interrupted near costa, connected in middle with tornus by dark suffusion. See couplet 36.
-
Larger species, 11.0-14.0mm
 
Forewing with median fascia ochreous, well-developed and edged with plumbeous in dorsal half, absent or obsolescent in costal half. See couplet 36.
 
57 (1)
Hindwing upper surface with cubital pecten. Length labial palpus long, porrect, more than three and a half times eye-diameter
 
Male 15-20mm., female 17-22mm. July and early August. Male with forewing ochreous, basal half of wing with brassy tinge; median fascia narrow, brown; somewhat reticulated in terminal area. Female with forewing almost uniformly reddish brown with weak brassy sheen.
-
Hindwing upper surface without cubital pecten. Length labial palpus distinctly shorter
 
 
58 (57)
Forewing with vein 7 to costa, reaching costa near apex
 
Genus Acleris except for A. bergmanniana and A. forsskaleana.
-
Forewing with vein 7 to termen, reaching termen near apex, or to apex
 
 
59 (58)
Forewing with costa broadly emarginated beyond middle
 
16.0-23.0mm. Mid July to February (!). Forewing very variable in coloration and markings; the most common form in The Netherlands has the forewing brownish grey with obsolescent markings; ground colour varying from ferruginous brown to pale ochreous; sometimes distinct markings, e.g. darker median fascia or reticulation, also the basal two-fifth may be distinctly paler than rest of wing.
-
Forewing with costa not emarginated
 
 
60 (59)
Forewing reddish brown and orange-ochreous with conspicuous triangular white costal blotch beyond middle
 
10.5-15.0mm. Early June to early September.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
61 (60)
Forewing with extremely large erect wedge-like tuft near middle of wing
 
18.0-22.0mm. August to November and after hibernation March to May (in Britain). One of the most variable known Lepidoptera. Forewing varying from white, creamy and orange to brown and black; the large scale-tuft varies from white to orange to brown or black; scattered smaller tufts present; pattern of markings variable; costa shallowly concave beyond middle, compare with A. hastiana, couplet 73.
-
Forewing without extremely large tuft of erect scales
 
 
62 (61)
Forewing pale green, sometimes mixed or strigulated grey and occasionally wholly greyish
 
18.0-22.0mm. From July and after hibernation until May. Very variable species. Forewing with numerous tufts of erect darker or paler scales; usually some irregular scattered black marks, sometimes blackish or ferruginous patches. The recurring forms are divided into two groups, viz. forms with forewing smooth-scaled, scale-tufts distinct and forms with forewing squarrose with scale-tufts comparatively indistinct. In greyish specimens the additional characteristics should be considered.
-
Forewing not greenish
 
 
63 (62)
Forewing with apex subfalcate, less prominent in male; distal half of cilia pure white on costal half of termen
 
13.0-21.0mm. Late June to early November. Very variable. Forewing from pale ochreous yellow to ferruginous brown and blackish brown; brownish reticulate pattern; median fascia only in costal half, often incomplete; scale-tufts very slight. Hindwing whitish or greyish.
-
Forewing with apex not subfalcate; cilia not partly pure white
 
 
64 (63)
Vertex distinctly darker than thorax and basal area forewing
 
-
Vertex, thorax and basal area forewing concolorous
 
 
65 (64)
Forewing with basal area white or whitish, occasionally slightly tinged reddish yellow; one large scale-tuft with erect scales
 
14.0-19.0mm. Mid June to early November. Forewing usually with basal half white or whitish, rest of wing dark; several small groups of raised scales in distal half; among others a form occurs with ground colour pale ochreous and with dark brown markings. Also a melanic form is known with blackish plumbeous forewing and indistinct markings. Hindwing grey, paler basally.
-
Forewing with basal area pale ochreous; one large scale-tuft with only slightly raised scales
 
15.0-20.0mm. August and early September. One of the most constant species of the genus Acleris. Forewing with distal half suffused with reddish ochreous; central fascia brown with small scale-tufts on inner margin among which the large one; pre-apical spot diffuse, connected with lower half of termen. Hindwing whitish grey, suffused with brown.
 
66 (64)
Vertex, thorax and ground colour forewing almost pure white or pale greyish white.
 
-
Vertex, thorax and ground colour forewing greyish, yellowish or brownish
 
 
67 (66)
Forewing with dark blotch near middle of costa tripunctate, usually not confluent, sometimes reduced; cilia concolorous with ground colour, shaded with ochreous basally. Hindwing broadened at tornus
 
18.0-22.0mm. Throughout the year (not found in January and February); the adult hibernates. Forewing with markings obsolescent, a dark spot in middle of disc sometimes sharply defined; often more or less distinct brownish streaks or patches; numerous scale-tufts.
-
Forewing with blotch near middle of costa consisting of three dark spots, often confluent; cilia concolorous with ground colour, unicolorous. Hindwing not broadened at tornus
A. kochiella (part)
 
15.0-19.0mm. Throughout the year (not found in December, January and February); the summer generation (from June to August) keys out here (for autumn generation see couplet 69). Forewing with markings reduced; small black scale-tufts in basal area.
 
68 (66)
Forewing with costa strongly curved basally, underside with costa distinctly roughened with scales in basal half
 
-
Forewing with costa more smoothly curved basally, underside with costa not roughened with scales
 
 
69 (68)
Forewing with costal blotch represented by three separate spots, in particular both situated basally sometimes confluent
A. kochiella (part)
 
15.0-19.0mm. Throughout the year (not found in December, January and February); the autumn generation (from August to June; the adult hibernates) keys out here (for summer generation see couplet 67). Forewing grey, the surface roughened with numerous concolorous scales, often mixed with brown and black; costal blotch varying from grey to deep purplish brown.
-
Forewing with costal blotch otherwise
 
 
70 (69)
Forewing without large scale-tufts, only a few scattered raised black scales and slight tufts near base of median fold
A. sparsana (part)
 
See couplet 83.
-
Forewing with at least one conspicuous scale-tuft
 
 
71 (70)
Forewing with dark triangular costal blotch extending from one-third to apical area, sometimes more or less broken into three separate spots. Length labial palpus one and a half times eye-diameter
 
12.0-19.0mm. June, July and October; in Britain the adult hibernates (this is not yet known from The Netherlands). Forewing usually whitish grey or creamy without dark fascia; sometimes ochreous or reddish brown with less distinct costal blotch.
-
Forewing without dark costal blotch extending from one-third to apical area. Labial palpus two times eye-diameter
 
 
72 (71)
Forewing with basal area edged distally by an almost continuous ridge of raised black scales (inner margin of median fascia similarly indicated)
 
19.0-25.0mm. August to November and after hibernation March, April. Forewing brownish mixed greyish or yellowish, markings blackish brown, diffuse; numerous and prominent scale-tufts; roughened scales of costa more pronounced and longer than in any other Dutch species. An almost uniformly blackish brown form is known.
-
Forewing with basal area not edged distally by a ridge of raised black scales
 
 
73 (72)
Forewing usually purplish brown, less often pale greyish brown or blackish brown; only few markings, usually diffuse and often reduced, viz. basal blotch and median fascia, both pale ferruginous. Hindwing brownish creamy
 
18.0-24.0mm. September and after hibernation March, April. Forewing with median fascia in dark specimens reduced to a pale transverse streak, not reaching to costa and dorsum, in pale specimens sometimes only the dark edge of raised scales and scale-tufts remains. Sometimes a large white scale-tuft in middle of wing. Less variable than A. hastiana, some forms of the latter species can only be reliably distinguished from A. scabrana by means of genitalia.
-
Forewing widely varying in colour and markings, but yet forms resembling A. scabrana are very rare; markings often longitudinal. Hindwing brownish grey
 
16.0-23.0mm. Throughout the year (not in January); the adult hibernates. With A. cristana belonging to the most variable known Lepidoptera. Forewing with ground colour from ochreous brown to grey and blackish brown with purplish tinge; basal patch and median fascia often obsolete or absent, sometimes a whitish subcostal streak or a brownish longitudinal streak or along dorsum broadly pale ochreous.
 
74 (68)
Forewing and cilia concolorous: orangeous ochreous yellow. Vertex, thorax anteriorly, basal and costal blotch forewing all ferruginous
 
Male 13.0-16.0mm, female 11.0-14.0mm. Early July to early September. Forewing with costal blotch reaching to apex. Labial palpus with third segment distinctly narrower than distally broadened second segment.
-
Forewing otherwise
 
 
75 (74)
Forewing pale ochreous to deep reddish ochreous, occasionally creamy, cilia concolorous or slightly paler. Labial palpus with third segment abruptly and distinctly narrower than the distally broadened second segment
 
-
Forewing coloured otherwise. Labial palpus tapering from half-way second segment to tip of third segment
 
 
76 (75)
Forewing with numerous transverse rows of small lustrous spots
 
14.0-16.0mm. July. Forewing pale ochreous; indistinct ochreous costal blotch, rarely dark brown, often reduced,.
-
Forewing without transverse rows of lustrous spots
 
 
77 (76)
Forewing with small, but rather conspicuous black scale-tuft (four scales or more) above dorsum at one-quarter (in worn specimens scales may be lost); termen almost straight (best seen from underside)
 
14.0-18.0mm. Throughout the year (not in January); the adult hibernates. Forewing with ground colour pale ochreous brown varying to ferruginous brown, occasionally creamy; a tuft of black and whitish scales in disc; costal blotch brown, often obscure or broken into two or three separate spots. Specimens with coarse black irroration occur less commonly.
-
Forewing with black scale-tuft above dorsum at one-quarter absent or consisting of only two or three scales; apex more strongly produced and termen shallowly concave near middle
 
15.0-19.0mm. Throughout the year (not in January); the adult hibernates. Forewing with ground colour pale ochreous to reddish brown, sometimes creamy; a tuft of black and whitish scales in disc; costal blotch brownish, sometimes obsolescent or tripunctate, more often with the three spots connected or even costal blotch produced and extending to tornus. Specimens with coarse black irroration more frequent than in A. ferrugana.
 
78 (75)
Forewing with scale-tufts mainly in transverse series, usually one discocellular scale-tuft prominent; dark reddish brown with darker reticulation especially in distal area.
 
13.0-16.0mm. July to September. Forewing with apex slightly produced and termen shallowly concave; dark costal blotch reaching to apical area, usually well-developed, outer margin blackish plumbeous. Hindwing whitish grey, variably strigulated with grey distally.
-
Forewing with scale-tufts all slight, obsolete or absent
 
 
79 (78)
Forewing with ground colour silvery grey or straw-coloured; termen relatively short; costa 2.5 to 2.9 times longer than termen
 
-
Forewing varying from whitish grey and pale ochreous yellow to deep purplish brown and blackish brown; termen relatively long, costa 2.1 to 2.4 times longer than termen
 
 
80 (79)
Forewing straw-coloured, coarsely irrorate with scattered black scales; apex acutely angled, termen oblique
 
15.0-21.0mm. July and October. Forewing with venation paler; scale-tufts obsolete or absent; a blackish discocellular spot, occasionally enlarged or broken and reduced; also forewing occasionally traversed longitudinally by a conspicuous ferruginous streak. Tegulae without white spot.
-
Forewing with ground colour usually silvery grey, irregularly and variably overlaid with reddish brown to purplish brown markings and suffusion. Termen almost at right angles to costa
 
12.0-20.0mm. October and November and after hibernation late February to early May. A form with unicolorous reddish brown forewing is known.
 
81 (79)
Hindwing with termen from tornus to about three-quarters of distance to apex parallel to costa, then with a short curve towards apex
 
-
Hindwing with termen from tornus to about one-half of distance to apex parallel to costa, then smoothly curved towards apex
 
 
82 (81)
Forewing with apex protruding; ground colour varies considerably, from whitish and yellow-ochreous to deep purplish brown; markings variable; cilia creamy, at base overlaid with broad scales of wing-colour and with reddish brown subbasal cilia-line.
 
17.0-22.0mm. October, November and after hibernation March and April. Forewing sometimes with dark costal blotch or with costa broadly suffused with white basally or with ferruginous central longitudinal streak to apex; scale-tufts absent.
-
Forewing with apex not or hardly protruding; ground colour greyish, variably mixed with reddish brown; markings obsolescent or absent; cilia grey without dark cilia-line
 
17.0-24.0mm. Late August to October; in Britain the adult hibernates. Forewing usually with some transverse series of dark grey dots; scale-tufts often absent.
 
83 (81)
Generally larger species, 18.0-24.0mm. Forewing without dark edging of basal area dorsally. Hindwing upperside with vein 1b not darker
A. sparsana (part)
 
July to November and after hibernation in March (rarely observed). Forewing grey, occasionally whitish grey; markings often obsolescent, indicated by ferruginous and ochreous striae, sometimes a dark costal blotch; scale-tufts slight. See couplet 70.
-
Generally smaller species, 13.0-20.0mm. Forewing with basal area variably edged dark dorsally. Hindwing upperside with vein 1b darkened
 
 
84 (83)
Forewing generally greyish, sometimes paler or more ochreous or reddish, darker strigulated; costal blotch usually distinct and uniformly coloured from pale brown to reddish brown or blackish
 
13.0-18.0mm., occasionally larger. Mid June to early November; the adult does not hibernate. Forewing with small scale-tufts.
-
Forewing with ground colour ochreous brown to dark brown, variably suffused greyish, occasionally basal and terminal areas whitish; costal blotch distinct, blackish brown or reddish brown, somewhat paler centrally
 
15.0-20.0mm. Late June to mid October; the adult does not hibernate. Forewing with small scale-tufts.
 
85 (58)
Hind tibia with inner and outer spurs of about equal length in both pairs. Forewing usually elongate-ovate with apex rounded and termen more or less oblique
 
In Exapate congelatella hind tibia only with apical pair of spurs.
-
Hind tibia with inner spurs longer than outer spurs in both pairs. Forewing usually broad, rectangular-shaped and often with produced apex
 
 
86 (85)
Labial palpus comparatively long, twice eye-diameter
 
-
Labial palpus comparatively short, one to one and a half times eye-diameter
 
 
87 (86)
Forewing silvery white, costa narrowly suffused with whitish yellow
 
20.0-27.0mm. Late June and July (in Britain). Superficially resembling Crambus perlella from which it can easily be distinguished by the much shorter labial palpus.
-
Forewing not silvery white
 
 
88 (87)
Forewing pale ochreous suffused with ochreous brown, sometimes with ferruginous tinge, somewhat glossy
 
16.0-23.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing with markings usually obsolescent and reduced; often unicolorous. Reminiscent of Cnephasia longana, see couplet 93.
-
Forewing with ground colour pale grey
 
17.0-23.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing with markings dark grey variably mixed and edged with black; curved fascia at one-third, abruptly terminating above dorsum; median fascia oblique, inwardly usually excavated in dorsal half; colour and markings fairly constant. Differs from the similar Cnephasia stephensiana (couplet 104) as follows: labial palpus shorter, inner edge median fascia without excavation in costal half near middle, outer edge basal fascia and inner edge median fascia slightly converging towards costa and not parallel as in C. Stephensiana.
 
89 (86)
Forewing coloured ferruginous and pale ochreous without distinct markings except for a usually conspicuous small white or whitish discocellular spot
 
See couplet 151.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
90 (89)
Labial palpus hardly longer than eye-diameter
 
-
Labial palpus approximately one and a half times longer than eye-diameter
 
 
91 (90)
Smaller species, 12.0-17.0mm. Stout appearance. Hind tibia with one pair of spurs
 
Late May to late July. Forewing male blackish brown, sparsely irrorate with whitish; markings blackish, indistinct. Forewing female heavily irrorate whitish, except the blackish markings, viz. basal fascia (often not reaching to dorsum), median fascia and pre-apical spot extending to tornal area.
-
Larger species. 19.0-24.0mm. Slender appearance. Hind tibia with two pairs of spurs
Exapate congelatella (part, male)
 
October to December (in Britain), occasionally also the following spring (in Germany); the only Dutch specimen, a male, was recorded in March. Forewing greyish; longitudinal streak of whitish irroration in disc; two blackish spots in disc at one-third and two-thirds respectively. Female with reduced wings, see key for the families couplet 6.
 
92 (90)
Adults occurring from mid February until mid April. Hindwing with vein 4 absent, hence only four veins reaching termen
 
19.0-23.0mm. Forewing ochreous, brown or greyish brown; basal patch and median fascia dark brown, diffuse, often indistinct and sometimes obsolete.
-
Adults occurring from May to September. Hindwing with vein 4 present, hence five veins reaching termen
 
 
93 (92)
Forewing in both sexes pale ochreous to dark ochreous brown; male unicolorous; female with markings varying from pale to dark ochreous brown, variably mixed with blackish
 
14.0-22.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing female with sharply angulated fascia at one-third, median fascia with inner edge excavated above and below middle. Hindwing slightly translucent. In particular unicolorous males of this species may resemble Eana osseana; differences: Cnephasia longana lacks the gloss in the forewing; hindwing C. longana with veins 3 and 4 separate from cell, in E. osseana 3 and 4 stalked; labial palpus in C. longana one and a half times eye-diameter, in E. osseana two times. See couplets 88, 96 and 101.
-
Forewing varying from white and grey to blackish, occasionally mixed brownish; markings, if present, from grey to blackish, greyish brown or greyish with a slight brownish tinge; ground colour and markings without ochreous tinge
 
 
94 (93)
Forewing unicolorous or nearly so
 
-
Forewing with markings
 
 
95 (94)
Forewing white, greyish white or creamy
 
-
Forewing greyish brown or blackish brown
 
 
96 (95)
Forewing unicolorous greyish white or creamy. Hindwing slightly translucent
C. longana (male, part)
 
See couplets 93 and 101.
-
Forewing unicolorous white or with remains of dark markings. Hindwing not translucent
 
 
97 (96)
Forewing wholly chalk white or with some blackish speckling. Smaller species, 15.0-17.0mm
 
A common form. See couplet 105.
-
Forewing white with some remains of the brownish grey markings. Larger species, 18.0-22.0mm
 
Very rare form. See couplets 99 and 104.
 
98 (95)
Forewing greyish brown with the slightly darker markings obscurely indicated or forewing unicolorous greyish brown
C. pasiuana (part)
 
15.0-19.0mm. By far the most common form in males, also occurring in females. See couplets 100 and 102.
-
Forewing blackish brown with inconspicuous or strongly reduced darker markings, or forewing unicolorous blackish brown
 
 
99 (98)
Forewing blackish brown with inconspicuous slightly darker markings or forewing unicolorous blackish brown. Generally larger species, 18.0-22.0mm
 
Rare form. See couplets 97 and 104.
-
Forewing blackish brown with markings represented by small black spots. Generally smaller species, 14.0-18.0mm
C. asseclana (part)
 
Rare form. See couplet 106.
 
100 (94)
Forewing with ground colour whitish mixed brownish; basal area brownish, distinctly darker than ground colour
C. pasiuana (female, part)
 
15.0-19.0mm. See couplets 98 and 102.
-
Forewing with basal area not distinctly darker than ground colour
 
 
101 (100)
Forewing with fascia at one-third acutely angulated outwardly; median fascia with anterior edge deeply excavated twice, with a tendency to fracture
C. longana (part, female)
 
14.0-22.0mm. Forewing greyish white or creamy; markings ochreous brown. See couplets 93 and 96.
-
Forewing with fascia at one-third outwardly angulated right-angled or obtuse; median fascia not tending to fragmentate
 
 
102 (101)
Forewing with ground colour greyish brown with dark greyish brown markings
C. pasiuana (female, part)
 
15.0-19.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with fascia at one-third, median fascia slightly sinuous inwardly. See couplets 98 and 100.
-
Forewing with ground colour and markings not brownish, but with ground colour varying from white and grey to blackish, markings from grey to blackish, sometimes greyish with a slight brownish tinge
 
 
103 (102)
Larger species, 18.0-22.0mm
 
-
Smaller species, 13.0-18.0mm
 
 
104 (103)
Forewing with termen from apical area to above tornus almost straight; fascia at one-third, angulated, with its outer edge in middle tapering towards apical area, not reaching to dorsum, but usually a narrow connection present; pre-apical spot usually producing a stria to tornal area
 
18.0-22.5mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing with colour and markings comparatively constant; ground colour pale grey; markings blackish grey, speckled with black.
-
Forewing with termen slightly convex; fascia at one-third, angulated, its outer edge in middle with a small tooth, well above dorsum and without connection; stria between pre-apical spot and tornal area absent
 
18.0-22.0mm; undersized specimens occur. Late May to early September. Forewing with colour and markings variable (see couplets 97 and 99). Ground colour whitish grey; markings dark grey with a slight brownish tinge, speckled with black.
 
105 (103)
Forewing with pale grey appearance; ground colour varying from pure white to greyish white, finely irrorate with pale brownish grey; markings grey with a brownish tinge, both fasciae narrower than in other Cnephasia species. Well-marked specimens scarce, markings usually obsolescent and reduced (see couplet 97)
 
15.0-17.0mm. June to early August. Forewing with fascia at one-third varying from nearly absent to entire, in the latter case indistinct near dorsum; median fascia with inner edge indented twice. The few Dutch records suggest that pale forms predominate (as in Britain).
-
Forewing with darker appearance, grey or blackish grey; ground colour pale grey or grey, irrorate and suffused with greyish or blackish. Usually well-marked, but because of dark suffusion and irroration markings may be indistinct
 
 
106 (105)
Forewing with blackish grey appearance; ground colour grey, variably, but often heavily suffused blackish and with rather conspicuous blackish coarse irroration; markings blackish grey with a slight brownish tinge; pre-apical spot usually broadly connected with termen (obsolete in darker specimens)
C. asseclana (part)
 
14.0-18.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing with coloration and markings variable (see couplet 99); fascia at one-third, indistinct near dorsum or not reaching to dorsum; median fascia with inner edge variable, usually without deep indentations.
-
Forewing with grey appearance; ground colour pale grey, finely and not densely suffused and irrorate with greyish; markings grey with a slight brownish tinge; pre-apical spot not connected with termen
 
13.0-18.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with coloration and markings fairly constant; fascia at one-third not reaching to dorsum; median fascia with inner edge indented twice, but not deeply. The exserted ovipositor can easily be seen without dissection; this is not possible in the other Dutch Cnephasia species.
 
107 (85)
Forewing unicolorous, yellowish, ochreous, green, brown or dark greyish brown
 
Forewings completely without markings, such as dark dorsal spot, suffusion in small areas, distinct reticulation or strigulation.
-
Forewing with markings
 
 
108 (107)
Forewing green or pale green
 
17.0-24.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with costal margin narrowly edged with yellowish or whitish. Paler specimens may resemble Aphelia paleana (see couplet 112).
-
Forewing coloured otherwise
 
 
109 (108)
Forewing with veins 7 and 8 not separate from cell
 
18.0-20.0mm. Alien. Forewing with length costa distinctly more than three times greatest width of wing; pale ochreous, glossy; no trace of markings.
-
Forewing with veins 7 and 8 separate from cell
 
Forewing with length costa two and a half to three times greatest width of wing; not glossy, but sometimes with silky sheen.
 
110 (109)
Hindwing greyish ochreous yellow, cilia concolorous with rest of wing
 
Forewing deep ochreous brown or reddish brown; unmarked form. See couplet 156.
-
Hindwing with cilia paler than rest of wing
 
 
111 (110)
Labial palpus curved upwards to just above eye
 
Forewing ochreous olive or dark greyish brown with rather strong silky sheen; unmarked form. See couplet 129.
-
Labial palpus curved upwards to half-way eye
 
 
112 (111)
Forewing varying from whitish ochreous to yellow ochreous, sometimes with slight greyish tinge
 
17.0-24.0mm. Late June to early August. Species with forewing unmarked. Reminiscent of rare form of A. viburnana with unmarked pale coloured forewing.
-
Forewing brownish with ochreous, greyish, olive or reddish tinge
A. viburnana (part)
 
Forms with unmarked forewing. See couplet 141. Males with pale forewing can be distinguished from similarly coloured specimens of A. paleana by means of the genitalia without dissection by brushing the abdomen: the uncus is excavated apically in A. viburnana, in A. paleana it is broadly rounded.
 
113 (107)
Forewing with veins 7 and 8 stalked
 
-
Forewing with veins 7 and 8 connate or separate from cell
 
 
114 (113)
Length labial palpus at most one and a half times length head
 
-
Length labial palpus twice length head
 
 
115 (114)
Hindwing yellowish white, faintly suffused with grey dorsally
 
16.0-20.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing pale ochreous yellow; median fascia ochreous brown, slender, oblique and incomplete (present from costa to middle of wing); pre-apical spot dark brown, conspicuous, usually interrupted. Similar to Clepsis spectrana, from which it can be distinguished by means of veins 7 and 8 of forewing: they are stalked in Paramesia gnomana, separate in Clepsis spectrana.
-
Hindwing darker, from brownish grey to blackish grey
 
 
116 (115)
Forewing with cilia dark brown
 
12.0-18.0mm. Late May to mid August. Forewing with basal area blackish olive, post-median area variably mixed dark; ochreous brown semi-elliptical patch on dorsum. Forewing female paler and with distinctive square whitish yellow or greyish yellow patch near middle of costa.
-
Forewing with cilia pale yellow
 
13.0-17.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing yellowish ochre, strigulated dark brown or ferruginous; markings coloured as strigulae; basal patch faint, median fascia (sometimes interrupted) and pre-apical spot rather large. Hindwing dark brownish grey.
 
117 (114)
Forewing with inner edge or median fascia sharply defined and straight
 
15.0-17.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing ochreous yellow with fine brownish reticulation; broad median fascia and pre-apical patch reddish brown; sometimes distal half wing wholly reddish brown. Forewing male without costal fold. Hindwing dark grey.
-
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia ill-defined or irregular
 
 
118 (117)
Forewing pale grey more or less brownish tinged; basal patch, median fascia and pre-apical spot ill-defined, represented by somewhat darker suffusion
 
13.0-18.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing sometimes greyish brown with some darker suffusions only. Forewing male with strong costal fold. Hindwing pale grey.
-
Forewing yellowish brown with slight ferruginous tinge; markings ferruginous or brownish, often well-defined
 
Male 15.0-19.0mm, female 18.0-23.0mm. Early May to early November. Forewing with median fascia narrow, irregular, pre-apical spot emitting a strong stria to tornal area; markings sometimes reduced and obsolete, especially in female, occasionally almost unicolorous; female sometimes with darker reticulation. Hindwing grey.
 
119 (113)
Labial palpus ascending, more or less curved upwards
 
-
Labial palpus porrected
 
 
120 (119)
Forewing blackish brown, variably suffused with yellowish; median fascia diffuse and obscure, often edged with metallic plumbeous lines. Hindwing blackish
 
16.0-23.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing with strong yellow suffusion in basal area, this may result in a yellow colour.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
121 (120)
Forewing grey with dark grey markings, ground colour and markings with slight brownish tinge; markings usually reduced and indistinct
 
17.0-24.0mm. In Central Europe June to August. Forewing with markings in pale forms distinct, with basal patch, median fascia, pre-apical spot and reticulation; all Dutch specimens have reduced and indistinct markings.
-
Forewing with ground colour and markings not greyish
 
 
122 (121)
Hindwing orange, in rare darkened forms at least discal area orangeous
 
Male 13,0-19.0mm, female 16.0-24.0mm. In Britain May to November. Forewing with ground colour dark ferruginous or reddish brown; markings usually indistinct.
-
Hindwing with orange colouring at most in distal two-thirds or sometimes faint or absent
 
 
123 (122)
Forewing ochreous, brownish or blackish brown with violet tinge, at least in basal area, but sometimes faint
 
-
Forewing without violet tinge
 
 
124 (123)
Hindwing unicolorous dark greyish brown or grey, pale ochreous to middle of wing or less
 
-
Hindwing partly coloured orange
 
 
125 (124)
Hindwing grey, from costa to between one-third and middle of wing pale ochreous. Forewing without distinct sub-terminal stria
 
Male 18.0-21.0mm, female 20.0-26.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing ochreous with slight violet tinge and ferruginous markings; dorsal spot near base, absent in female; median fascia weak and usually interrupted in female. See couplet 130.
-
Hindwing unicolorous dark greyish brown. Forewing with distinct sub-terminal stria, sometimes weak or reduced
A. oporana (male, part)
 
Form with hindwing without orangeous apical area. See couplet 126.
 
126 (125)
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia at two-thirds of dorsum, both edges of median fascia well-defined; sub-terminal stria indented at two-thirds, in female often connected with other markings
A. oporana (part)
 
Male 16.0-21.0mm., female 20.0-28.0mm. Mid June to early October. Forewing violet brown or violet ochreous; basal patch, median fascia, costal patch and sub-terminal stria dark reddish brown. Hindwing male dark greyish brown, sometimes apical area orangeous; hindwing female orangeous from apical area to whole wing. See couplet 125.
-
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia at middle of dorsum, its inner edge well-defined, outer edge diffuse; sub-terminal stria not indentated
 
Male 18.0-23.0mm, female 20.0-28.0mm. Late May to early October. Forewing male violet ochreous to blackish brown, sometimes violet tinge faint; dorsal spot near base, median fascia and sub-terminal stria reddish brown; in dark specimens markings less distinct. Forewing female similar to male, but with reticulate pattern and with weak and reduced markings. Hindwing male grey, orangeous apically; hindwing female dark grey with apical one-third to two-thirds orange
 
127 (123)
Forewing with termen straight or hardly sinuate
 
-
Forewing with termen distinctly sinuate
 
 
128 (127)
Labial palpus with second segment broadened distally
 
Male 15.0-20.0mm, female 19.0-23.0mm. Late June and July. Forewing pale brown, occasionally paler or darker; basal patch, median fascia (sometimes interrupted above middle) and pre-apical patch all dark brown. In dark females markings diffuse. Hindwing grey.
-
Labial palpus with second segment not broadened distally
 
 
129 (128)
Forewing with basal patch distinctly edged; inner edge of median fascia nearly straight. Generally larger species, male 19.0-25.0mm, female 24.0-30.0mm
 
Late May to early August. Forewing pale greyish ochreous, often more yellowish; markings brown, slightly olive-tinged; basal patch with straight edge; median fascia usually entire, with inner edge straight; pre-apical patch. Hindwing grey.
-
Forewing with basal patch ill-defined, median fascia slightly indented in middle. Generally smaller species, male 18.0-22.0mm, female 20.0-24.0mm
 
July; in Britain also in August. Forewing male pale or deep ochreous yellow, female from pale ochreous to reddish brown; median fascia, pre-apical patch and incomplete sub-terminal stria all reddish brown; these markings often weak and obscure in male, in female reduced to faint lines and striae; for unmarked form see couplet 111. Hindwing pale grey.
 
130 (127)
Hindwing grey, from costa to between one-third and middle of wing pale ochreous. Forewing without distinct sub-terminal stria
Archips betulana (female, part)
 
Form of female with hindwing weakly tinged orangeous in apical area. See couplet 125.
-
Hindwing not partly coloured pale ochreous; occasionally apical area orangeous
 
 
131 (130)
Forewing with sub-terminal stria narrow, often not more than a fine line, forming a straight connection between pre-apical patch and tornal area, also basal patch and inner edge of median fascia almost straight
 
15.0-23.0mm. Late May to early October. Forewing pale brown, sometimes slightly reddish-tinged, female more strongly strigulated with dark brown; basal patch (more distinct in dorsal half), median fascia and pre-apical patch with sub-terminal stria, all dark brown and often slightly reddish-tinged; in female markings weaker, sometimes nearly obsolete. Hindwing grey, in female apical area often orangeous.
-
Forewing with sub-terminal stria a broad band, broadly curved towards tornal area, often interrupted or tapered, basal patch usually reduced to outwardly oblique dorsal spot, inner edge of median fascia angulated below middle or distinctly sinuate
 
 
132 (131)
Forewing with median fascia not reaching to costa
Archips crataegana (part, male)
 
19.0-22.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing pale brown, sometimes darkened to dark brownish grey or paling to ochreous white; markings dark brown; outwardly oblique spot near base; median fascia angulate in middle, edged inwardly with whitish, sub-terminal stria tapered towards tornal area. Hindwing greyish brown. For female see couplet 133.
-
Forewing with median fascia entire
 
In forewing costal part of median fascia sometimes narrow or indistinct.
 
133 (132)
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia sinuate and often finely bordered with ochreous white
 
Male 15.0-21.0mm, female 16.0-23.0mm. Forewing ochreous, more or less tinged dark brown; markings dark brown with ferruginous tinge; outwardly oblique dorsal spot near base; median fascia broadly connected with pre-apical patch, sub-terminal stria often narrowed and sometimes incomplete. Hindwing grey, in female sometimes tinged with yellowish.
-
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia angulated in middle, not whitish edged inwardly
A. crataegana (part, female)
 
23.0-27.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing brown, varying from dark brown to pale ochreous, dark brown reticulated; markings usually brown, but varying from pale ochreous to dark brown; dorsal spot near base (occasionally with complete basal patch), entire median fascia and sub-terminal stria, tapering to tornus. Hindwing greyish brown, sometimes tinged yellowish apically. For male see couplet 132.
 
134 (119)
Forewing with lustrous metallic transverse streaks, sometimes consisting of series of dots
 
-
Forewing without lustrous metallic transverse streaks
 
 
135 (134)
Vertex and thorax blackish brown
 
11.0-15.0mm. Late May to mid July. Forewing blackish brown with irregular and often incomplete median fascia, along termen a streak, broad apically and tapering towards tornus, all these markings ochreous yellow; three plumbeous metallic transverse streaks.
-
Vertex and thorax yellow or yellowish
 
 
136 (135)
Forewing yellow with coarse ferruginous orange reticulation
 
12.0-15.0mm. Mid June to early August. Forewing with markings more or less reduced, a basal blotch and three fasciae shining bluish grey, edged ferruginous.
-
Forewing yellow without coarse darker reticulation
 
11.0-15.0mm. Mid May to early September. Forewing with basal patch usually brownish, followed by a pale yellow dorsal blotch; brownish median and terminal fasciae edged with plumbeous metallic dots.
 
137 (134)
Forewing with vein 11 (last vein from cell) with base approximately opposite to base of vein 2 (first vein from cell)
 
-
Forewing with vein 11 with base distinctly before base of vein 2
 
 
138 (137)
Forewing ochreous yellow, usually marked only with ochreous brownish subtornal suffusion or weak, ill-defined subtornal blotch
 
18.0-22.0mm. Alien. Forewing with base frequently suffused brownish and often with weak and obscure brownish remnants of median fascia.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
139 (138)
Labial palpus relatively short, one and a half times eye-diameter or slightly more
 
-
Labial palpus longer, twice eye-diameter or more
 
 
140 (139)
Smaller species, 12.0-16.0mm. Forewing with ground colour silvery white
 
Late April to early August. Forewing strigulated with pale grey, markings dark reddish brown, variably mixed blackish; basal patch and median fascia present, pre-apical spot often connected with tornus.
-
Larger species, 20.0-29.0mm. Forewing with ground colour pale greyish brown or pale ferruginous overlaid with greyish purple
 
 
141 (140)
Forewing pale greyish brown with dark brown markings, consisting of two costals and a pre-tornal spot
 
20.0-29.0mm. Late May to mid July. Forewing sparsely strigulated dark brown. Hindwing grey.
-
Forewing pale ferruginous overlaid with greyish purple, with numerous irregularly interconnected narrow ferruginous fasciae
 
20.0-27.0mm. Mid June to early August. Hindwing pale grey with ochreous suffusion in apical area.
 
142 (139)
Forewing with antemedian fascia between basal fascia and median fascia, entire or reduced, occasionally indicated only at costa
 
14.0-19.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing pale yellow or pale ochreous, variably strigulated and suffused with brownish; antemedian and median fasciae; pre-apical spot emitting or followed by several strigulae; all these markings brownish; sometimes fasciae weakly indicated and only more distinct near costa; also darkened forms occur with forewing partly dark brown.
-
Forewing without any trace of an antemedian fascia,
 
 
143 (142)
Forewing with median fascia connected with pre-apical costal spot
 
19.0-24.0mm. May to August (in Germany). Forewing pale ochreous brown, strigulated ferruginous; median fascia and pre-apical costal spot ferruginous; distal area sometimes suffused with brown.
-
Forewing with median fascia not connected with pre-apical costal spot, markings usually indistinct and reduced
A. viburnana (part)
 
15.0-25.0mm. Mid June to early August. Forewing brownish with ochreous, greyish olive or reddish tinge; median fascia and pre-apical spot brownish, sometimes reddish-tinged; markings often indistinct and reduced, sometimes obsolescent or absent (see couplet 112).
 
144 (137)
Forewing in both sexes with apex slightly produced, termen distinctly sinuate, vertical; costa and dorsum rather strongly curved in basal third, thus forewing reaching its greatest width already before middle, costa and dorsum running parallel in distal half of wing
 
-
Forewing with apex not produced, termen not distinctly sinuate; costa and dorsum more smoothly curved, the wing reaching its greatest width distinctly beyond middle
 
Forewing sometimes with apex somewhat produced, but costa always curved almost to apex.
 
145 (144)
Hindwing pale grey or greyish white with at least apex whitish and sometimes strigulated with greyish. Antenna male with pedicellum deeply notched
 
-
Hindwing grey, occasionally with extreme apex reddish ochreous. Antenna male with pedicellum not notched
 
 
146 (145)
Forewing with ground colour ochreous yellow, sometimes slightly darker. Hindwing pale grey with apical area whitish in female, in male pale area often restricted to extreme apex and without darker strigulation
 
18.0-28.0mm. Late June to early October. Forewing reticulated brownish; basal patch, median fascia and pre-apical costal spot somewhat darker than ground colour and outlined dark brown; colour and markings variable, forms with markings reduced, obsolescent or even absent are known. Male with frons pale yellowish grey, in female brownish grey. Labial palpus twice length head, brownish grey, in male inner and dorsal side pale yellowish grey.
-
Forewing with ground colour brown. Hindwing greyish white, apically white and strigulated greyish
 
18.0-23.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing relatively broad; reticulated dark greyish brown; basal patch, median fascia and pre-apical costal spot dark greyish brown, darker edged. Both male and female with frons brownish. Labial palpus twice length head, brownish.
 
147 (145)
Forewing with inner edge of median fascia angulate just before middle. Labial palpus twice length head
 
16.0-24.0mm. Mid June to early October. Forewing varying from dark reddish brown to reddish ochreous; basal patch, median fascia and pre-apical costal spot darker; colour and markings forewing rather variable. Frons dark reddish brown.
-
Forewing with inner edge or median fascia almost straight. Labial palpus one and a quarter to one and a half times length head
 
 
148 (147)
Frons in male white, in female reddish brown. In male hindwing wholly brownish grey, in female hindwing brownish grey, extreme apex reddish ochreous
 
18.0-24.0mm. Late June and July. Forewing reddish ochreous; basal blotch, median fascia and pre-apical costal spot brown; colour and markings very constant. Labial palpus one and a quarter length head.
-
Frons and labial palpus brown in both sexes. Hindwing brownish grey in both sexes
 
16.0-24.0mm. Late May to early October. Forewing pale ochreous to pale brown; basal patch, median fascia and pre-apical costal spot brown, usually edged dark brown; basal half of wing variably suffused dorsally with blackish brown; colour and markings of forewing rather variable. Labial palpus one and a half times length head.
 
149 (144)
Forewing pale yellow reticulated ferruginous orange; blackish brown stria from middle of dorsum to middle of costa, strongly angulated beyond middle, meeting a variable blackish brown blotch in fold
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late June to early September.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
150 (149)
Thorax with well-developed crest. Forewing dark ferruginous brown with pale ochreous patches or on white, yellowish white or plumbeous grey ground with dark brown markings
 
-
Thorax without crest. Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
151 (150)
Larger species, 18.0-22.0mm. Forewing dark ferruginous brown with pale ochreous patches, without distinct markings except for a usually conspicuous small white or whitish discocellular spot
 
Early May to early July. Forewing often with basal half of costa and the greater part of distal third of wing pale ochreous; reduction of pale ochreous areas not uncommon. Hindwing grey with darker termen. See couplet 89.
-
Smaller species, 13.0-17.0mm. Forewing white, yellowish white or plumbeous grey with dark markings
 
Late May to early August. Forewing with basal patch, median fascia and pre-apical costal spot dark brown. Hindwing white or pale grey, darker distally.
 
152 (150)
Hindwing for the greater part pale: from whitish and creamy to greyish white
 
-
Hindwing dark: from grey to dark greyish brown and blackish brown
 
 
153 (152)
Forewing yellowish, somewhat golden, with three slender, more or less complete oblique reddish or ferruginous fasciae, running almost parallel
 
14.0-22.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing with first fascia in basal area not reaching to costa, median fascia entire, third, incomplete fascia formed by pre-apical costal spot, sometimes connected with sub-terminal spot, if present. Paler forms with reduction of markings occur, even unmarked specimens are known. Hindwing creamy or greyish white.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise
 
 
154 (153)
Forewing pale yellowish brown with distinct ferruginous reticulation, without basal blotch, median fascia and pre-apical blotch
 
Form with strongly reduced markings. See couplet 155.
-
Forewing with median fascia at least indicated
 
 
155 (154)
Forewing with median fascia entire and strongly widened medially, not obsolete towards dorsum or costa
 
12.0-16.0mm. Late June and July. Forewing pale ochreous yellow to brownish; basal blotch (often absent), median fascia and pre-apical blotch (often present) all brownish. Hindwing pale grey. See couplet 154.
-
Forewing with median fascia entire or obsolete costally and not strongly widened medially, or obsolete dorsally and widened medially
 
 
156 (155)
Forewing with median fascia well-developed in dorsal half
 
15.0-20.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing pale ochreous; basal patch diffuse, median fascia with inner edge almost straight and pre-apical spot, all ochreous brown; ground colour and markings fairly constant. Hindwing whitish with tornal area broadly suffused pale grey.
-
Forewing with median fascia well-developed in costal half
C. spectrana (part)
 
15.0-24.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing usually pale ochreous, but varying from ochreous white to reddish brown, sometimes with a greyish tinge; basal patch indistinct; median fascia diffuse or obsolescent before middle, strongly developed and darker brown towards costa; pre-apical costal patch dark brown. Variable species; markings more or less pronounced, unicolorous deep ochreous brown or reddish brown specimens occur. Hindwing whitish, pale greyish terminally, also in dark forms. See couplet 110.
 
157 (152)
Forewing for the greater part blackish brown with ochreous olive areas. Hindwing blackish brown
 
17.0-21.0mm. Mid June to late August.
-
Forewing coloured and marked otherwise. Hindwing varying from grey to dark greyish brown
 
 
158 (157)
Forewing pale grey or grey with dark brown or blackish markings, at least with an interrupted antemedian fascia
 
-
Forewing from pale yellow to ochreous and brown; markings very variable, brownish, but sometimes with one or two small blackish brown dorsal spots
 
 
159 (158)
Forewing with median fascia broadly interrupted in costal half, inner edge almost straight; cilia greyish
 
18.0-20.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing greyish with blackish markings.
-
Forewing with median fascia entire, quite exceptionally interrupted near middle, inner edge angulate at one-third; cilia yellowish
 
15.0-22.0mm. Late April to mid June. Forewing pale grey with dark brown markings.
 
160 (158)
Forewing pale brownish ochreous (male) or yellowish ochreous (female), variably strigulated pale ferruginous without further markings
 
13.0-17.0mm. Late April to mid June.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
161 (160)
Forewing with extremely broad dark brown median fascia, covering the greater part of distal half of wing
 
17.0-21.0mm. Mid May to mid July (in Southern Europe). Forewing greyish brown with dark brown markings.
-
Forewing with median fascia distinctly narrower, usually reduced or absent
 
 
162 (161)
Generally smaller species, male 13.0-17.0mm, female 15.0-19.0mm. Forewing with two blackish dorsal spots, one at two-fifth, the other near tornus, the latter ill-defined in male
 
Late May to early October. Male ochreous, sometimes reddish brown; median fascia brown, usually poorly developed. Female reddish brown with markings strongly reduced or absent, except for the two blackish dorsal spots.
-
Generally larger species, male 16.0-21.0mm, female 17.0-25.0mm. Forewing male without dark dorsal spots, female with one ill-defined dark dorsal spot at two-fifth
 
May to October (in Britain). Forewing male variable, pale yellowish or pale ochreous, contrasting sharply with ferruginous, sometimes almost blackish colour of distal half of wing; specimens with pale basal half occur, resembling female. Forewing female fairly constant, rather uniformly coloured, median fascia usually reduced.
 

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