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Toelichting

17. YPONOMEUTIDAE

1
Hindwing with length of cilia near end of vein 2 not exceeding three-quarters of greatest width wing
2
 
-
Hindwing with cilia near end of vein 2 of same length or longer than greatest width wing
 
 
2 (1)
Hindwing without hyaline space near base
3
 
Frons and vertex with appressed hair-scales, vertex posteriorly slightly rough-haired.
-
Hindwing with hyaline space near base
5
 
Frons and vertex with fine hair-scales, frons smooth, vertex more or less roughly haired. Forewing white, whitish or greyish with longitudinal rows of black spots.
 
3 (2)
Frons and vertex white
 
14.0-17.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing white; large dark grey triangular blotch, extending along costa from near base to two-thirds; irregular blackish marks in terminal area.
-
Frons and vertex grey or reddish brown
4
 
 
4 (3)
Forewing unicolorous blackish brown with reddish brown sheen
 
15.0-18.0mm. Late April to early October.
-
Forewing pale greyish brown with brown suffusion and dark brownish grey spots
 
9.5-14.5mm. Alien. Forewing with larger, brownish grey costal blotch at two-thirds.
 
5 (2)
Frons and vertex plumbeous grey. Forewing without black dots in terminal area
 
15.0-20.0mm. Mid May to early September. Forewing plumbeous grey with three rows of black dots; terminal cilia with short black line at base near apex.
-
Frons and vertex white or greyish white. Forewing with black dots in terminal area
6
 
 
6 (5)
Forewing with conspicuous, well-defined black spot in fold, considerably larger than the other black dots; small area near apex and adjacent cilia blackish
 
17.0-19.0mm. Late June to early September. Forewing greyish white, suffused blackish brown along costa, particularly near base.
-
Forewing without conspicuous well-defined black spot in fold; apical area and adjacent cilia not blackish
7
 
Forewing sometimes with dots or spots, also in fold, but these are grey (not black) and less well-defined or diffuse.
 
7 (6)
Forewing with large grey, rather well-defined patch in disc and similar but smaller dot in fold at two-fifth
 
19.0-25.0mm. Late June, July. Forewing white, costa grey; four rows of black spots. Yponomeuta-species with generally largest number of spots, except Y. evonymella.
-
Forewing without well-defined grey patches or only with cloudy dark suffusion in disc and in fold
8
 
 
8 (7)
Forewing pure white with five rows of small black dots
 
19.0-26.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing with largest number of spots among the Yponomeuta-species; without dark cloudy suffusion.
-
Forewing white, greyish or partly suffused greyish with less than five rows of black dots
9
 
 
9 (8)
Forewing pure white, including underside terminal cilia
 
-
Forewing whitish, greyish or partly suffused grey, underside terminal cilia not pure white, but pale grey (paler than wing) or concolorous with adjacent part of wing
 
 
10 (9)
Smaller species, 17.0-21.0mm. Labial palpus pale grey outwardly, white inwardly
 
Mid June to early October. See couplet 11.
-
Larger species, 21.5-26.5mm. Labial palpus white at both sides
 
Late June to early October.
 
11 (9)
Forewing with underside terminal cilia pale grey, distinctly paler than adjacent part of wing
 
17.0-21.0mm. Mid June to early October. Forewing slightly and evenly suffused grey. Not well distinguishable from pale specimens of Y. padella. See couplet 10.
-
Forewing with underside terminal cilia concolorous with dark adjacent part of wing or only slightly paler
 
 
12 (11)
Forewing on underside with fine pure white costal streak. Forewing white with greyish suffusion in costal third, reaching from near base to termen; this suffusion gradually diverges from costa, thus forming a white costal streak, suddenly widening into a preapical costal blotch at four-fifth
 
17.0-23.0mm. Late June to late August. Suffusion pattern of forewing shows little variation.
-
Forewing on underside with costa concolorous with rest of wing or only slightly paler. Suffusion and colour forewing very variable
 
18.0-22.0mm. Mid June to mid September. Forewing white to leaden grey, variably suffused grey; suffusion pattern sometimes similar to that of Y. rorrella; pale specimens with pale terminal cilia on underside forewing very similar to Y. malinellus.
 
13 (1)
Hindwing with hyaline space near base
 
-
Hindwing without hyaline space near base
 
 
14 (13)
Forewing with distal quarter and terminal cilia tinged shining coppery
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late April to mid August. Forewing blackish grey, purplish-tinged; obscure oblique fascia slightly darker than ground colour before middle. Frons and vertex white or ochreous white. Thorax dark grey.
-
Forewing with distal quarter and terminal cilia not tinged coppery, at most fringe slightly glossy
 
 
15 (14)
Forewing with conspicuous roundish golden ochreous apical patch, partly edged dark
 
13.0-16.5mm. Late April and May. Forewing pale ochreous grey; four or five longitudinal rows of blackish dots. Frons and vertex white. Thorax white with scattered dark scales.
-
Forewing without golden ochreous apical patch
 
 
16 (15)
Thorax and tegulae pure white, the latter with some dark scaling anteriorly. Forewing with dark median fascia clearly interrupted in fold
 
10.0-13.0mm. June and July. Forewing pale grey; two indistinct longitudinal rows of blackish dots. Frons and vertex white.
-
Thorax and tegulae ranging from pale greyish to dark greyish brown. Forewing with indistinct fascia, not interrupted in fold, but sometimes not reaching costa
 
 
17 (16)
Forewing with distinct white costal spot before apex. Bivoltine
 
9.0-13.0mm. From 22.IV to 20.VI and from 27.VII to 10.IX. Larva on birch (Betula spp.). Forewing rather plain pale bluish grey; fascia obscure, slightly darker than wing-colour, arising from dorsum at about one-third. Male genitalia can be inspected without dissection; valva without process arising from ventral edge.
-
Forewing with white costal spot before apex often split up into three or four small clusters of white scales. Univoltine
 
11.0-14.0mm. From 8.VI to 11.VIII (rarely in June). Larva on hawthorn (Crataegus spp.). Forewing bluish grey, more cloudy; fascia obscure, slightly darker than wing-colour, arising from dorsum just before half-way. Male genitalia with a large process arising from ventral edge of valva.
 
18 (13)
Hindwing ovate; width half-way equal to width forewing; length cilia half-way equal to greatest width of wing
 
-
Hindwing lanceolate; width half-way less than width forewing; cilia half-way at least one and a half times longer than greatest width if wing
 
 
19 (18)
Forewing blackish brown with three or four pale creamy white spots. Frons and vertex blackish brown
 
8.0-11.0mm. May and July, August. Forewing occasionally without pale spots or with tornal and costal spots extended to form an incomplete fascia.
-
Forewing white or whitish with dark grey spots; two fasciae, dark grey mixed ferruginous. Frons and vertex white mixed greyish
 
11.0-15.0mm. Late May to early September.
 
20 (18)
Proboscis obsolete
 
-
Proboscis well-developed
 
 
21 (20)
Forewing unicolorous white or pale grey without markings
 
-
Forewing brownish with white fascia or white with two golden-brown fasciae
 
 
22 (21)
Flagellum dark greyish brown; scape usually paler. Bivoltine
 
8.0-10.0mm. Early April to early June, early July to early September (in Britain sometimes also in November). Forewing of male greyish white, forewing female white. Frons white; vertex white mixed ochreous grey.
-
Flagellum whitish to pale brown, sometimes ringed whitish and ochreous grey; scape whitish
 
8.0-10.0mm. Early June to mid August. Forewing of both sexes greyish white.
 
23 (21)
Forewing white with two pale broad golden-brown fasciae, one near base, another before middle
 
11.0-13.0mm. Late May to early September.
-
Forewing greyish brown with white fascia at two-fifth, preceded by darker fascia. Univoltine
 
9.0-11.0mm. Early May to early September. Frons and vertex white.
 
24 (20)
Forewing with apex slightly falcate; unicolorous deep reddish brown, sometimes suffused paler ochreous brown
 
10.0-15.0mm. July, August and after hibernation to April (in Britain). Forewing often with ill-defined paler streak above fold from base to half-way; occasionally second dark stigma slightly visible.
-
Forewing with apex not falcate; with markings or unicolorous, but usually coloured otherwise
 
 
25 (24)
Forewing unicolorous or nearly unicolorous, without markings
 
Forewing usually shining bronzy gold, brownish or whitish, sometimes with traces of markings, but these are never longitudinal.
-
Forewing with markings
 
Forewing sometimes whitish, yellowish or slightly purplish with two longitudinal streaks, occasionally indistinct.
 
26 (25)
Forewing deep dark purplish brown or ferruginous brown
 
-
Forewing golden, bronzy, whitish, yellowish or greyish
 
 
27 (26)
Vertex pure white
 
Form with forewing unicolorous ferruginous brown with faint purplish tinge. Flagellum ringed white and blackish brown, scape white. Frons shining white. See also couplet 49.
-
Vertex pale ochreous
 
Form with forewing unicolorous deep dark purplish brown. Flagellum ringed whitish yellow and dark brown, scape ochreous. Frons shining ochreous white. See also couplet 43.
 
28 (26)
Forewing shining greenish brassy golden, pale golden or deep dark golden
 
-
Forewing not or hardly shining; pale ochreous, pale greyish violet, pale straw yellow or creamy white
 
 
29 (28)
Smaller species, 8.0-9.0mm
 
Late April to mid July. Forewing shining greenish golden. Flagellum weakly ringed white and greyish brown, scape ochreous. Frons yellowish white, vertex pure white.
-
Larger species, 9.0-13.5mm
 
 
30 (29)
Forewing coppery with greenish gloss. Vertex reddish brown to ferruginous
 
9.0-13.5mm. Late May to early June. Flagellum ringed white and purplish brown, scape ochreous. Frons reddish brown.
-
Forewing shining metallic pale golden or deep reddish golden. Vertex from pure white to ochreous, without reddish tinge
 
 
31 (30)
Flagellum distinctly ringed whitish and dark brown (in worn specimens less distinct), some sub-terminal segments white
 
Unicolorous form (f. splendida Reutti). Forewing pale golden. Vertex pale yellowish to ochreous; scape whitish to pale ochreous. See also couplet 54.
-
Flagellum unicolorous brown or indistinctly ringed white and brown, sometimes partly ringed
 
Unicolorous form. Forewing deep dark golden. Vertex pure white, occasionally pale ochreous; scape pale ochreous. See also couplets 41 and 54.
 
32 (28)
Vertex ochreous to ferruginous
 
-
Vertex white, whitish or ochreous white
 
 
33 (32)
Scape silvery white
 
9.0-14.0mm. May to July (in Britain). Forewing slightly shining pale grey to ochreous grey, elder specimens tending to become more yellowish. Frons silvery white; vertex ochreous to ferruginous. Flagellum weakly annulated white and pale brownish grey. Thorax and tegulae pale grey to ochreous grey.
-
Scape yellowish
 
8.0-11.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing somewhat shining pale grey, especially females (and in general elder specimens) more ochreous rather than grey. Frons shining creamy white; vertex ochreous to ferruginous-yellow. Flagellum ringed white and brownish grey, at least in basal half. Thorax and tegulae silvery grey.
 
34 (32)
Forewing creamy white. Vertex pure white
 
9.0-12.0mm. Form with unicolorous forewing, only a few blackish scales near apex. Flagellum annulated white and blackish brown; scape white. Frons yellowish white. See also couplets 47 and 56.
-
Forewing pale ochreous brown, pale straw yellow or pale greyish violet. Vertex whitish, beige or pale ochreous yellow
 
 
35 (34)
Forewing pale ochreous brown with faint reddish brown suffusion between disc and apex. Vertex whitish
 
8.0-10.0mm. Late April, May. Flagellum pale ochreous, weakly ringed brown. Frons white. Thorax ochreous yellow.
-
Forewing pale straw yellow or pale greyish violet
 
 
36 (35)
Larger species, 9.5-10.5mm. Forewing pale straw yellow
 
Late May, June. Frons and vertex pale ochreous yellow. Flagellum ringed white and brown. Thorax yellowish grey.
-
Smaller species, 7.0-9.0mm. Forewing pale greyish violet
 
Late July to early September. Frons shining brassy white; vertex ochreous white. Flagellum weakly ringed ochreous and brown. Thorax shining ochreous grey. See couplet 38.
 
37 (25)
Forewing white (sometimes suffused pale purplish brown) with two golden or pale golden longitudinal streaks extending from base to between one-third or three-fifth
 
-
Forewing marked and coloured otherwise
 
 
38 (37)
Forewing pale greyish violet; both longitudinal golden streaks extending from base to three-fifth, often ill-defined; without further golden markings
 
See couplet 36.
-
Forewing white, often suffused pale purplish brown ; longitudinal golden streaks from base to one-third or one-half, sometimes only one streak extending to three-fifth; with additional golden markings
 
 
39 (38)
Flagellum distinctly annulated white and blackish brown
 
7.0-9.0mm. Early June to mid August. Forewing white, suffused pale purplish brown. Frons shining brassy white; vertex white. Thorax white, tegulae golden ochreous.
-
Flagellum whitish, not annulated or with rings hardly discernible
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing white with a few brown scales near apex. Frons and vertex white. Thorax white, tegulae golden ochreous.
 
40 (37)
Forewing with white, yellowish or silvery dorsal streak, uninterrupted for at least basal two-fifth of dorsum
 
-
Forewing without well-defined pale dorsal streak
 
If occasionally dorsum forewing paler, one or more darker dorsal spots present in basal half.
 
41 (40)
Forewing with white dorsal streak continuous to tornus
 
F. aurivittella Haworth. See also couplets 31 and 53.
-
Forewing with pale dorsal streak not extending to tornus, but interrupted or terminated by dark fascia
 
Pale dorsal streak in forewing occasionally not completely interrupted.
 
42 (41)
Forewing shining dark purplish brown with metallic reflections; dorsal streak silvery white or occasionally shining pale yellowish
 
8.0-10.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing with broad almost vertical median fascia, slightly darker than rest of wing; white dorsal streak before dark fascia with basal three-quarters distinctly narrower than distal fourth. Frons and vertex whitish. Flagellum ochreous yellow, weakly ringed brown. Thorax shining yellowish white, tegulae dark purplish. See couplet 50.
-
Forewing not shining with metallic reflections
 
 
43 (42)
Forewing with dorsal streak yellowish white to ochreous white
 
10.0-14.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing dark brown with purplish reflections; dorsal streak before dark fascia with basal three-quarters distinctly narrower than distal fourth; an outwardly oblique blackish brown fascia, not reaching costa or interrupted just before it. Frons somewhat brassy; vertex whitish. Flagellum ringed yellowish white and dark brown; scape creamy. Thorax creamy, tegulae shining purplish brown. In f. maculosa Tengström dark brown colour replaced by ochreous white. See couplet 27.
-
Forewing with dorsal streak pure white
 
 
44 (43)
Forewing with dorsal streak not continued beyond dark median fascia
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late May to mid August (in Central Europe). Forewing dark violet brown; dorsal streak broadened distally, tornal part sometimes represented by pale shade; a broad blackish brown median fascia. Frons white; vertex pure white. Flagellum ringed white and brown; scape shining whitish grey. Tegulae dark brown.
-
Forewing with dorsal streak continued beyond dark median fascia
 
 
45 (44)
Forewing with pale dorsal streak interrupted by a dark fascia, at least distinct to half-way wing
 
-
Forewing with pale dorsal streak interrupted by a dark spot
 
Forewing with dark spot interrupting pale dorsal streak not clearly continued into a fascia; sometimes dark interruption incomplete.
 
46 (45)
Forewing with basal half above white dorsal streak almost unicolorous dark; dorsal streak from base to dark fascia of equal width; dark fascia steep
 
9.0-12.0mm. Mid May to early July. Forewing purplish greyish brown. Frons yellowish white; vertex white. Flagellum ringed yellowish white and pale brown, sometimes more distinctly on medial segments; scape whitish. Thorax white, tegulae pale brown.
-
Forewing with basal half above white dorsal streak paler towards costa; dorsal streak before dark fascia with basal three-quarters distinctly narrower than distal fourth; dark fascia curved outwards
 
 
47 (46)
Forewing with dark median fascia pronounced, curved outwards and meeting or nearly meeting costa at three-fifth to two-thirds; between costa and dark basal streak (edging pale dorsal streak costally) usually predominantly brown
 
10.0-12.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing brown, somewhat ferruginous, towards costa suffused creamy. Frons creamy, vertex white,. Flagellum ringed white and blackish; scape white. Thorax white, tegulae golden brown.
-
Forewing with dark median fascia becoming ill-defined as it curves towards apex, meeting costa at four-fifth; between costa and dark basal streak predominantly creamy
 
9.0-12.0mm. Mid June to early September. Forewing usually predominantly creamy, somewhat shining; often suffused brownish, particularly in apical quarter. Frons shining yellowish white; vertex pure white. Flagellum ringed white and blackish; scape white. Thorax pure white, tegulae golden brown. See couplets 34 and 56.
 
48 (45)
Forewing ochreous, somewhat shining, towards costa ochreous white; white dorsal streak ill-defined
 
10.5-14.0mm. Late July to early October. Frons yellowish white, vertex white or whitish. Flagellum ringed white and dark brown; scape white. Thorax white, tegulae brownish.
-
Forewing dark purplish brown, usually with purplish reflections; white dorsal streak well-defined
 
 
49 (48)
Forewing with white dorsal streak from base to one-third, usually tapering; costal strigulae ochreous yellow
A. albistria (part)
 
9.0-11.0mm. Late June to early August. Forewing ferruginous brown with some purplish reflections particularly in apical area; dorsal streak beyond dark interruption indistinct, ochreous, not white. Frons shining white, vertex white. Flagellum ringed white and dark brown; scape white. Thorax white, tegulae brown. See also couplet 27.
-
Forewing with white dorsal streak from base interrupted half-way, not tapered; costal strigulae white
 
10.0-13.0mm. July and August. Forewing dark purplish brown with purplish reflections; white dorsal streak continued distinctly beyond dark interruption. Frons shining white, vertex white. Flagellum ringed white and dark brown; scape white. Thorax white, tegulae brown. Similar to A. conjugella, which occurs from mid May to early July, see couplet 43.
 
50 (40)
Forewing with ground colour shining dark purplish brown with metallic reflections.
 
Specimens with reduced pale dorsal streak forewing. See couplet 42.
-
Forewing with ground colour golden, white or creamy
 
 
51 (50)
Forewing golden with white or whitish golden markings or the reverse
 
-
Forewing white or creamy, usually with brown or dark brown markings
 
 
52 (51)
Forewing golden with three straight pure white fasciae
 
8.0-9.0mm. Early May to early June. Frons and vertex white. Flagellum ringed white and shining brown; scape white. Thorax and tegulae coppery.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
53 (52)
Forewing with costal area unicolorous whitish golden
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late May to early July. Forewing whitish golden; markings golden: dorsal spot at one-third connected with basal streak, outwardly oblique streak from middle of dorsum and tornal spot. Frons shining white; vertex ochreous white. Flagellum ringed whitish and dark brown; scape ochreous white. Thorax and tegulae golden brown.
-
Forewing with costal area golden with white markings, occasionally costal area pure white
 
 
54 (53)
Thorax and tegulae ochreous golden. Forewing with white fascia in distal half, occasionally interrupted
 
10.0-12.0mm. Late May to early October. Forewing typical form white with three golden fasciae: first near base, second widely furcate towards costa, third terminal, enclosing two white terminal spots. F. literella Haworth with white costal area, golden fasciae not reaching costa. In another form the three golden fasciae are connected in costal half. For f. splendidae Reutti see couplet 31. Frons shining white; vertex pale ochreous. Flagellum distinctly ringed white and dark brown; scape whitish.
-
Thorax and tegulae white. Forewing usually without white fascia in distal half
 
10.0-12.0mm. Late May to early September. Forewing typical form golden with one white fascia at one-third; one basal, three costal and one tornal spot, all white. For unicolorous form see couplet 31, for f. aurovittella Haworth see couplet 41. In another form first white fascia not reaching costa and dorsum and connected with white fascia at three-quarters. Frons shining white; vertex white, occasionally pale ochreous.. Flagellum indistinctly ringed white and brown, partly ringed or unicolorous; scape pale ochreous.
 
55 (51)
Forewing without distinct dark median fascia, but strigulated dark or forewing only with dark incomplete basal streak
 
-
Forewing with dark median fascia, curved or angulated, sometimes interrupted or connected with other dark markings
 
 
56 (55)
Forewing unicolorous creamy, except for traces of brown basal streak
 
F. ossea Haworth. Forewing with some brown scales near apex. See couplets 34 and 47.
-
Forewing white, strigulated dark brown
 
 
57 (56)
Forewing with distinct fine and small strigulae in variable numbers
 
8.0-11.0mm. Mid May to early August. Forewing often with diffuse brownish basal and terminal streaks. Frons whitish; vertex white, mixed darker anteriorly. Flagellum whitish, ringed dark brown, often paler towards apex or unringed beyond two-thirds; scape white. Thorax and tegulae white.
-
Forewing with strong strigulae, in distal half reticulated; strigulae at dorsum enlarged to two or three spots
 
7.0-10.0mm. Mid May to late June. Frons and vertex whitish. Flagellum ringed white and brown to apex; scape white. Thorax and tegulae white.
 
58 (55)
Smaller species, 6.0-10.0mm
 
-
Larger species, 10.0-13.0mm
 
 
59 (58)
Thorax and tegulae ochreous. Forewing shining ochreous with brown markings
 
7.0-10.0mm. Mid May to mid June. Forewing with three irregular and often incomplete fasciae. Frons and vertex white. Flagellum ringed white and brown; scape yellowish white.
-
Thorax and tegulae white. Forewing shining white in basal half, yellowish white in distal half; with brown markings
 
6.0-10.0mm. Early June to early August. Forewing with basal half almost unmarked; brown fascia just beyond middle, interrupted at three-quarters; apical fourth of wing with interconnected brown markings. Frons and vertex white. Flagellum ringed white and brown; scape white.
 
60 (58)
Forewing white, somewhat creamy in costal half; markings brown, slightly golden; fascia extending to half of wing
 
11.0-13.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with dorsal spot at one-quarter, often connected with base along fold; median fascia often connected with markings in distal half of wing. Frons shining ochreous; vertex white. Thorax and tegulae shining white.
-
Forewing white (also costal half); markings greyish brown; fascia often reaching costa
 
10.0-12.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing with small or obsolete dorsal spot at one-quarter, not connected with wing base; fascia distinct, often incomplete or interrupted near costa. Frons shining ochreous white; vertex white. Flagellum ringed whitish and brown; scapus white. Thorax and tegulae white.
 

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