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Toelichting

16. GRACILLARIIDAE

1
Antenna with scape somewhat dilated and concave beneath to form a small eyecap. Forewing with black dot at base of apical cilia whence three divergent dark bars extend into terminal cilia
2
 
Vertex smoothly scaled, frons always silvery white. Hindtibia with a row of strong bristles dorsally.
-
Antenna without eyecap. Forewing without three divergent dark bars in terminal cilia
5
 
Vertex smoothly scaled or rough-haired, frons often white. Hindtibia smoothly scaled or with bristles.
 
2 (1)
Forewing pure white with two parallel dark grey longitudinal lines from base to beyond one-half, enclosed space usually filled with ochreous
 
6.0-7.5mm. June to October and after hibernation in March. Forewing with apical one-third suffused ochreous; five dark grey costal strigulae, the second extended to a fascia, the first often extended towards dorsum.
-
Forewing white without dark longitudinal lines from base
3
 
 
3 (2)
Forewing with four dark grey costal strigulae
 
6.5-8.0mm. From late March to late October (adult hibernates). Forewing with basal two-thirds unicolorous white or with grey and ochreous suffusion, apical one-third suffused ochreous; second strigula extended to a fascia; a dark grey dorsal spot in basal quarter near base.
-
Forewing with five dark grey costal strigulae, the apical one sometimes indistinct
4
 
 
4 (3)
Forewing without dark grey dorsal spot or with a very small one, at about one-third from base; space between the most basal strigulae white
 
5.5-7.0mm. July to September and after hibernation in April and May (abroad). Forewing with apical third suffused ochreous and dark grey; second strigula often extended to a fascia.
-
Forewing with large dark grey dorsal spot at about one-third from base, sometimes absent; space between the two most basal strigulae with ochreous suffusion
 
5.0-6.5mm. Voltinism probably same as in P. xenia. Very similar to that species.
 
5 (1)
Vertex rough-haired. Labial palpus straight or nearly so, drooping or porrected
6
 
-
Vertex with appressed scales. Labial palpus more or less curved and ascending
 
 
6 (5)
Midleg with tibia concolorous with tarsus
7
 
Legs often with dark markings. Maxillary palpus almost indiscernible.
-
Midleg with tibia dark brown or dark grey, occasionally pale grey, contrasting with white or whitish colour of tarsus
 
 
7 (6)
Forewing coarsely dark-scaled, matt, not shining; strigulae and fasciae usually ill-defined and diffuse
8
 
Forewing with ground colour white or whitish, variably suffused with dark scales, but usually with dark appearance; for pale specimens of Phyllonorycter pastorella see couplet 8; pale basal streak absent.
-
Forewing smoothly scaled, shining; strigulae and fascia usually well-defined and distinct
 
Forewing with or without pale basal streak. To this alternative belong a few species with a rather matt appearance of forewing, viz. Phyllonorycter connexella, P. corylifoliella and P. salictella; these species have a pale basal streak. To this alternative also belong species with ground colour white or whitish, but these species never have a dark appearance.
 
8 (7)
Vertex white or whitish, not mixed with dark hair-scales
 
7.0-8.5mm. June to November and after hibernation April and May. Flagellum unicolorous or annulated. Forewing less dark sprinkled, white markings enlarged and sometimes fused, giving the wing a pale appearance. Pale forms of this species (summer generation?). See couplet 11.
-
Vertex whitish, brown or greyish, mixed with darker or paler hair-scales
9
 
Antenna at least partly annulated, sometimes less distinct.
 
9 (8)
Forewing with distinct blackish apical longitudinal streak
 
Forewing grey, often with reddish tinge or brownish; outer edge of first dark fascia beneath middle of wing.
-
Forewing with ill-defined blackish roundish or elliptical apical dot or with some scattered blackish scales at this position
 
Forewing grey withoout reddish tinge; dark markings often giving the impression of blocks and triangles, outer edge of first dark fascia angled in middle of wing or beneath.
 
10 (9)
Flagellum annulated, usually whitish apically. Forewing brownish or greyish with four or five dark costal strigulae recognizable; markings white, blackish-edged inwardly, also well-defined outwardly
 
7.0-8.5 mm. Voltinism supposedly as in P. pastorella. Forewing brownish or greyish. Vertex white, mixed brownish anteriorly.
-
Flagellum annulated throughout. Forewing with five or six dark costal strigulae recognizable; pale grey markings, edged blackish brown, ill-defined outwardly
 
6.5-8.0mm. Voltinism supposedly as in P. pastorella. Forewing brownish or reddish-grey. Vertex often white, often mixed brownish, in particular anteriorly.
 
11 (9)
Forewing with outer edge of first dark fascia in middle of wing, in heavily suffused specimens less obvious. Flagellum annulated throughout
 
7.0-8.5mm. June to November, after hibernation April and May. Forewing brownish grey; five dark costal strigulae recognizable. Frons whitish, vertex pale brown to brown, often darker anteriorly. See couplet 8.
-
Forewing with outer edge of first dark fascia beneath middle of wing. Flagellum annulated, whitish apically
 
6.5-8.4 mm. Voltinism supposedly as in P. pastorella. Forewing grey; five dark costal strigulae. Frons whitish, vertex dark brown, whitish posteriorly.
 
12 (7)
Forewing with ground colour white, occasionally pale grey or very pale ochreous
 
-
Forewing with ground colour golden brown or pale brown to very dark brown
 
 
13 (12)
Forewing with basal area golden brown, the posterior oblique dark edge from one-fifth costa to one-third dorsum
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing shining white; dark basal area with curved white stripe form middle of base to dorsum; cilia white with black apical hook. Vertex white with a few dark hair-scales.
-
Forewing with basal area not golden brown with oblique edge
 
 
14 (13)
Forewing with dark basal streak in pale basal area, occasionally indistinct
 
-
Forewing with dark basal streak absent
 
 
15 (14)
Forewing with costal edge of basal streak arched towards costa; apex of first costal strigula distinctly distad of apex first dorsal
P. rajella (part)
 
7.0-9.0mm. Mid April to early September. Forewing fringe without dark apical hook. Vertex dark brown anteriorly, white posteriorly. See couplet 56.
-
Forewing with basal streak almost straight; tips of first pair of strigulae closely together
 
6.0-7.5mm. Late April to early October. Forewing fringe with apical hook. Vertex white.
 
16 (14)
Forewing with basal third without strigulae or transverse fascia
 
-
Forewing with basal third with strigulae or fascia
 
 
17 (16)
Forewing with first dorsal strigula curving towards apex; three costal strigulae, first only visible as a slightly curved blackish streak
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late April to mid September. Forewing fringe without apical hook. Vertex white, mixed with a few blackish brown hair-scales.
-
Forewing with first dorsal strigula almost parallel to second; four costal strigulae, first variously blended brown
P. tenerella (part)
 
6.0-8.3mm. May and August. Forewing fringe without apical hook. Vertex whitish, mixed with a few brown hair-scales. See couplet 66.
 
18 (16)
Forewing with complete fascia at one-fifth, ochreous, dark-edged; fringe with apical hook
 
8.0-9.5mm. Late April to early September. Vertex white, mixed with a few brown scales.
-
Forewing without complete ochreous dark-edged fascia in basal quarter; fringe without apical hook
 
 
19 (18)
Forewing with first brown-blended fascia sharply angled (30 degrees or less), usually extending outwardly to reach next fascia
 
6.0-8.5mm. Early May to late September. Basal quarter of forewing with two short dark costal strigulae and one dorsal. Vertex white, sometimes mixed with brown hair-scales.
-
Forewing with first brown-blended fascia (occasionally interrupted) less sharply angled (60 to 90 degrees), hardly or not extending outwardly to next fascia
 
Dark strigulae in basal quarter of forewing similar to P. geniculella.
 
20 (19)
Forewing with inner edge of first complete fascia obtusely angled or occasionally curved, the outer edge smoothly curved
 
7.0-8.5mm. May and July, August. Forewing with one dark dorsal strigula, terminating midway between the two dark costal strigulae; dark dorsal strigula often interrupted. Vertex white, usually mixed with brown hair-scales.
-
Forewing with inner edge of first complete fascia acutely angled or occasionally right-angled
 
6.5-8.0mm. May and August. Forewing in basal quarter with one dark dorsal strigula almost touching second dark costal and often not quite touching dorsum. Vertex white, usually brown anteriorly.
 
21 (12)
Forewing in basal two-thirds with at least one complete transverse fascia (straight, irregular, smoothly curved or angled)
 
-
Forewing in basal two-thirds without complete transverse fascia
 
Opposite strigulae of forewing may nearly join or their dark edges touching.
 
22 (21)
Vertex black or blackish brown
 
-
Vertex not black or blackish brown
 
Vertex white, pale grey, yellowish, ochreous, brown and occasionally very dark; in the latter case vertex pale grey posteriorly. Frons white.
 
23 (22)
Thorax metallic golden brown
 
6.5-8.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing dark golden brown, sometimes suffused dark; two silvery white fasciae; short dark-edged silvery basal streak, sometimes obscure. Frons shining white.
-
Thorax shining leaden metallic
 
 
24 (23)
Forewing with silvery basal streak
 
6.0-8.0mm. Early May to early October. Forewing bright golden brown; silvery fascia, two silvery costal and dorsal strigulae. Frons leaden metallic.
-
Forewing without silvery basal streak
 
6.5-8.0mm. Late April to late August. Forewing shining brownish orange; two slightly sinuate silvery fasciae, one costal and one dorsal strigula. Frons leaden metallic.
 
25 (22)
Forewing with first or only fascia making an inwardly acute or right angle
 
-
Forewing with first or only fascia making an inwardly obtuse angle, straight, irregular or smoothly curved
 
 
26 (25)
Vertex whitish, mixed dark brown. Tegulae white
P. cavella (part)
 
7.0-9.5mm. May and August, September. Forewing golden ochreous, markings shining white; basal streak to near middle, one fascia, three costal and two dorsal strigulae. Thorax shining golden ochreous with strong pale central line. See couplets 46 and 65.
-
Vertex brown or coppery brown, at least anteriorly. Tegulae brown or golden brown, edged paler
 
 
27 (26)
Forewing with fascia outwardly right-angled or sinuate
 
6.5-9.0mm. May to August. Forewing pale golden brown, markings whitish; basal streak to near middle; dorsal spot usually reaching basal streak; one fascia; three costal and two dorsal strigulae, ill-defined. Thorax brown, paler posteriorly, pale central line absent. Vertex brown. See couplet 58.
-
Forewing with acute-angled fascia
 
 
28 (27)
Forewing with first dorsal and second costal strigulae connected to a fascia
 
6.0-8.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing shining straw-coloured; fringe with dark cilia-line very faint or absent; markings white: fascia, one costal strigula basally, three distally and three dorsal strigulae distally; basal streak often meeting first costal strigula. Thorax brown, usually with white central line. Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly. See couplet 46.
-
Forewing with first dorsal and first costal strigulae connected to a fascia
 
7.0-9.0mm. May, June and August (in Britain). Forewing pale coppery brown; markings varying from whitish to almost ground colour: fascia, three costal and two dorsal strigulae distally and basal streak, not meeting first costal; fringe with dark cilia-line strong. Thorax ochreous brown, sometimes with fine central line. Vertex pale coppery brown, whitish posteriorly. See couplet 48.
 
29 (25)
Forewing in basal two-thirds with at least two complete pale fasciae
 
Forewing with basal streak very short or absent.
-
Forewing in basal two-thirds with one complete pale fascia
 
Forewing with basal streak.
 
30 (29)
Forewing with silvery white basal streak , occasionally less distinct. Vertex brown or ferruginous, whitish posteriorly
 
-
Forewing without pale basal streak. Vertex brownish orange
 
 
31 (30)
Forewing with first fascia angled at one quarter from costa; fringe with cilia-line
 
8.0-10.0mm. May to October. Forewing shining brown with silvery-white markings; two costal and two dorsal strigulae. Vertex brownish, greyish white posteriorly.
-
Forewing with first fascia slightly curved; fringe without cilia-line
 
Forewing occasionally with weak cilia-line.
 
32 (31)
Forewing with basal streak reaching to about one-sixth, often reaching first fascia. Larger species, 9.0-11.0mm
 
Early May to mid August. Forewing shining pale brown with two costal and two dorsal strigulae. Vertex pale ferruginous, whitish posteriorly.
-
Forewing with basal streak reaching to about one-ninth, not reaching first fascia. Smaller species, 6.5-8.5mm
 
May and June (in Britain also in August, September). Forewing shining golden brown with two costal and one or two dorsal strigulae. Vertex pale ferruginous, whitish posteriorly.
 
33 (30)
Forewing with fasciae conspicuously edged blackish inwardly , particularly towards costa, but also towards dorsum. Antenna not white apically
 
7.0-10.0mm. May to late October. Forewing pale reddish ochreous; three fasciae, third sometimes interrupted, and one costal strigula. Vertex pale brownish orange, whitish posteriorly.
-
Forewing with fasciae not broadly edged blackish inwardly towards costa and dorsum
 
Antenna white apically.
 
34 (33)
Forewing with markings shining white, not silvery, slightly tinged pale yellow; Fasciae inwardly finely edged brown, the edging shading off uniformly through pale brown into the brownish orange ground colour
 
7.5-8.5mm. May, June and August. Forewing with two fasciae, one dorsal and two costal strigulae. Vertex brownish orange, whitish posteriorly; thorax shining brownish orange, pale brown anteriorly.
-
Forewing with markings metallic silvery or golden; fasciae sharply edged blackish brown inwardly, not shading into ground colour
 
 
35 (34)
Thorax pale coppery or reddish silvery. Forewing with first costal strigula smaller than dorsal strigula, not meeting. Flagellum dark grey throughout or indistinctly ringed darker, white apically
 
7.5-9.0mm. Late April to mid August. Forewing shining brownish orange with two fasciae, one dorsal and two costal strigulae. Vertex brownish orange.
-
Thorax brown or golden brown. Forewing with first costal and first dorsal of equal size, sometimes meeting to form a third fascia. Flagellum ringed white and dark grey, white apically
 
 
36 (35)
Larger species, 9.0-11.0mm.
 
Late April to early August. Forewing pale golden brown, not shining, with silvery markings: two fasciae, second slightly curved outwardly; two costal (sometimes a barely visible third one) and two dorsal strigulae; first costal and first dorsal strigulae sometimes meeting to form a third fascia. Vertex pale brownish orange.
-
Smaller species, 7.0-8.0 mm.
 
Early May to mid August. Forewing pale glossy brownish orange with silvery markings: two fasciae, second distinctly curved outwardly; two or three costal and two dorsal strigulae; first costal and first dorsal strigulae sometimes meeting to form a third fascia. Vertex brownish orange.
 
37 (29)
Forewing with apical hook in cilia
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing golden brown with white markings: fascia, three costal and two dorsal strigulae. Vertex ochreous brown. Thorax without pale central line.
-
Forewing without apical hook in cilia
 
 
38 (37)
Forewing without whitish dorsal patch between base and fascia
 
5.3-6.7mm. Not known, probably from spring to October. Forewing shining golden brownish orange, sometimes with greyish tinge, in male generally paler than in female; with silvery white markings: fascia, in male three costal and two dorsal strigulae, in female two costal and two dorsal strigulae. Vertex blackish, grey anteriorly. Thorax without pale central line.
-
Forewing with whitish (occasionally very pale golden) patch between base and fascia, sometimes less distinct
 
 
39 (38)
Smaller species, 5.5-6.5mm. Forewing with markings shining silvery
 
May and August (in Britain). Forewing shining golden brown with fascia, three costal and two dorsal strigulae. Vertex dark brown, whitish posteriorly. Thorax with pale central line.
-
Larger species, 6.5-9.0mm. Forewing with markings pure white
 
 
40 (39)
Forewing with basal streak fine, turned upwards, unedged. Flagellum with middle third annulated white and grey
 
6.5-9.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing golden, slightly shining, with white, sometimes very pale yellowish markings: fascia, three costal and two or three dorsal strigulae. Vertex golden brown or brown. Thorax with faint pale central line. See couplet 61.
-
Forewing with basal streak strong, straight, edged or unedged. Flagellum not annulated
 
 
41 (40)
Forewing with basal streak unedged; fringe with cilia-line barely discernible. Flagellum grey with proximal third and subterminal 10 or 11 segments white, terminal segment black
 
7.0-9.0mm. June to August. Forewing golden brown with reddish sheen in basal half, white markings: fascia, three costal and two or three dorsal strigulae. Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly. Thorax with pale central line.
-
Forewing with basal streak edged black at both sides; fringe with cilia-line fairly strong. Flagellum brownish, paler distally
 
5.5-8.5mm. May and August (in Britain). Forewing shining brownish orange, white markings: fascia, three costal and two dorsal strigulae. Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly. Thorax with pale central line. See couplet 54.
 
42 (21)
Forewing without basal streak
 
Thorax without pale central line.
-
Forewing with basal streak
 
Thorax with or without pale central line.
 
43 (42)
Forewing with four or five costal strigulae; apical hook absent
 
5.5-7.0 mm. supposedly early May to late August. Forewing shining brown, dorsal area grey and blackish, strigulae silvery, three dorsal strigulae, dark longitudinal streak at one-third from dorsum between first and second dorsal strigula. Vertex black, greyish laterally.
-
Forewing with three costal strigulae; with apical hook
 
7.0-9.0 mm. early May to early October. Forewing uniform shining golden brown; strigulae white, three dorsal strigulae. Vertex dark brown mixed whitish anteriorly.
 
44 (42)
Forewing with five costal strigulae, outer one occasionally faint
 
-
Forewing with one, two or four costal strigulae
 
 
45 (44)
Forewing with narrow silvery white stripe along costa from base and extended to first costal strigula; three dorsal strigulae
 
5.5-7.0mm. Mid May to early September. Forewing shining dark golden brown; markings silvery white, basal streak curved towards costa. Vertex pale golden brown, whitish posteriorly; frons white, slightly coppery.
-
Forewing without such a costal stripe; four dorsal strigulae, outer one occasionally faint
 
 
46 (45)
Forewing with basal streak unedged with parallel margins, distal end angled towards costa
 
6.0-8.0mm. Late May to early August. Forewing shining straw-coloured; markings white. Thorax brown, usually with white central line. Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly. See couplet 28.
-
Forewing with basal streak dark edged above, costal margin straight, dorsal margin slightly sinuate
P. cavella (part)
 
The form with five costal strigulae instead of four (f. milleri Povolný & Gregor). See also couplets 26 and 65.
 
47 (44)
Forewing with only one or two distinct costal strigulae; additional costal strigulae indistinct, obsolete or absent; basal streak and strigulae from whitish to almost ground colour
 
Forewing with basal streak not edged darker.
-
Forewing with four distinct costal strigulae; costal strigulae whitish or silvery
 
Forewing with basal streak edged, not fully edged or unedged.
 
48 (47)
Forewing with two rather distinct costal strigulae, two other indistinct; basal streak sinuate
 
7.0-9.0mm. May, June and August (in Britain). Forewing ochreous brown, strigulae and basal streak from whitish to a slight lightening of ground colour; with apical spot (usually indistinct) preceded by irregular dark line to middle of wing. Vertex shining brown, whitish posteriorly. Thorax sometimes with fine pale central line. See couplet 28.
-
Forewing with one rather distinct costal strigula, other costals obsolete or absent; basal streak angulate at middle
 
 
49 (48)
Forewing with markings yellowish white, more or less suffused blackish brown; usually with narrow transverse pale stripe between middle of basal streak to dorsum
 
8.5-10.0mm. May and June. Forewing brownish yellow, slightly reddish, rather matt. Vertex ochreous grey, mixed whitish anteriorly. Thorax with whitish central line.
-
Forewing with markings white, not suffused dark; without connection between basal streak and dorsum
 
8.0-9.5mm. Late April to early September. Forewing matt brown, slightly reddish; apical spot if present usually preceded by a more or less distinct dark band to middle of wing or beyond. Vertex reddish brown, paler posteriorly. Thorax with fine pale central line.
 
50 (47)
Forewing with basal streak fully dark-edged on both sides, often finely
 
-
Forewing with basal streak not fully dark-edged on both sides
 
 
51 (50)
Forewing with basal streak reaching to one-half or beyond
 
-
Forewing with basal streak shorter than two-fifth
 
 
52 (51)
Forewing with basal streak reaching to one-half, straight; four costal and four dorsal strigulae; second dorsal strigula extending to beyond apex of basal streak
 
7.0-9.0mm. April, May and August to November. Forewing shining yellowish with faintly yellowish markings. Vertex yellowish brown. Thorax without pale median line.
-
Forewing with basal streak reaching to three-fifth, slightly curved towards costa; four costal and three dorsal strigulae, second dorsal strigula not reaching apex of basal streak
 
7.0-10.0mm. Late April to mid October. Forewing shining golden yellowish with white markings. Vertex pale brownish orange. Thorax without pale median line.
 
53 (51)
Forewing with fine silvery streak along dorsum from base to first dorsal strigula
 
7.0-10.0mm. Late April, May and August, early September. Forewing pale ochreous with shining silvery markings; basal streak curved towards costa at four-fifth. Vertex pale ochreous, dark anteriorly. Thorax with pale median line.
-
Forewing without such a dorsal streak
 
 
54 (53)
Forewing with tip of first costal strigula further away from base than tip of first dorsal; first dorsal triangular
 
7.0-9.0mm. April to early August. Forewing brownish golden yellow; markings white; basal streak straight. Vertex brownish. Thorax without pale median line.
-
Forewing with tips of first pair of strigulae almost touching and at about equal distance from base; first dorsal long and narrow
 
5.5-8.5mm. May and August (in Britain). Forewing with basal streak straight. See also couplet 41.
 
55 (50)
Forewing with basal streak distinctly convex above, not curved or angled
 
Forewing sometimes with basal area predominantly whitish, resulting in more or less distinct basal streak, but dark edging above always present; basal streak always pointed at end.
-
Forewing with basal streak not distinctly convex above
 
Forewing with basal streak blunt or pointed at end.
 
56 (55)
Forewing with tip of first costal strigula opposite to tip of first dorsal; basal streak always distinct, dark edging above and rounded tip
 
8.0-9.0mm. May and August (in Britain). Forewing golden ochreous; markings silver white. Vertex white, mixed ochreous anteriorly. Thorax usually with white central line.
-
Forewing with tip of first costal strigula distinctly further away from base than first dorsal; basal streak in female often obsolete because of whitish basal area of wing, in male distinct; in both sexes dark edging of basal streak present, only above
P. rajella (part)
 
6.0-9.0mm. Late April to early September. Very variable species. Forewing with colour ranging from pale brownish orange to dark brown, in female often predominantly whitish in basal half of wing; markings white. Vertex white, greyish anteriorly or wholly grey. Thorax without pale central line. See couplet 15.
 
57 (55)
Forewing with basal streak curved or angled upwards
 
-
Forewing with basal streak straight
 
 
58 (57)
Forewing with fine line along dorsum from base to dorsal patch (between base and first dorsal strigula). Thorax without pale central line
 
6.5-9.0mm. May to August. Forewing pale golden brown; markings whitish; basal streak to near middle, almost unedged (often a few isolated dark scales); dorsal spot usually reaching basal streak; strigulae ill-defined. Vertex brown. See couplet 27.
-
Forewing without white line from base along dorsum. Thorax with pale central line.
 
In P. salicicolella thorax with faint central line.
 
59 (58)
Forewing with third and fourth costal strigulae not dark-edged
 
Forewing with basal streak not dark-edged.
-
Forewing with third and fourth costal strigulae dark-edged inwardly, sometimes with only a few scales
 
Forewing with basal streak often dark-edged, usually weakly.
 
60 (59)
Forewing sprinkled with brownish scales, more densely towards apex
 
8.5-10.0mm. Late April to early September. Forewing slightly shining ochreous or brownish; markings white to yellowish white; first pair of strigulae not meeting, both forming an acute angle; costals and dorsals often indistinct except first pair. Vertex brownish, yellowish brown posteriorly.
-
Forewing not sprinkled with dark scales
 
 
61 (60)
Forewing with first pair of strigulae narrow, elongate, curving strongly towards apex of wing and almost touching to form an acutely angled fascia. Flagellum annulated pale greyish brown and white througout
P. dubitella (part)
 
7.0-8.0mm. May, June and August (in Britain). Forewing bright pale golden brown; markings white; costals three and four less distinct. Vertex pale brown, whitish posteriorly. Thorax with distinct white central line. See couplet 62.
-
Forewing with first pair of strigulae almost meeting to form an obtusely or right-angled fascia. Flagellum only with middle third annulated grey and white
 
6.5-9.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing golden, slightly shining, with white, sometimes very pale yellowish markings: costals three and four usually less distinct. Vertex golden brown or brown. Thorax with faint pale central line. See couplet 40.
 
62 (59)
Fringe forewing with dark brown cilia-line, not preceded by lilac reflection; in forewing dark edging of basal streak reduced to a few dark scales in distal third (on both sides)
P. dubitella (part)
 
See couplet 61.
-
Fringe forewing with lilac cilia-line, preceded by lilac reflection ; in forewing basal streak edged with dark scales or unedged
 
Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly. Thorax with white central line. The next three species cannot always be separated on the basis of external characters, but the majority of the specimens can be identified using the characters given in the couplets 63 and 64.
 
63 (62)
Forewing with basal streak not dark-edged
 
6.0-9.5mm. Late April to mid November. Forewing brown, slightly orange; first costal and first dorsal strigulae separate, not touching; basal streak very slender, slightly broadened in distal quarter; dorsal blotch a very narrow white line along dorsum from base to near first dorsal strigula, often interrupted. Vertex orange-brown, white posteriorly.
-
Forewing with basal streak faintly dark-edged (sometimes reduced to a few scales)
 
 
64 (63)
Forewing with first costal and first dorsal strigulae separate, not touching; dorsal blotch a narrow, uninterrupted white line from base to first strigula
 
6.0-8.5mm. April, May and July, August. Forewing brown; basal streak slender, distinctly broadened at two-thirds or three-quarters, dark-edged costally, sometimes indistinct, and rounded apex. vertex ochreous yellow, whitish poterioirly. Midleg with tarsus flecked or banded blackish brown or unmarked. Genitalia in P. spinicolella male with process in middle of vertical margin of valva, absent in P. cerasicolella. The ductus bursae of the female of P. spinicolella tortuous within seventh segment, in P. cerasicolella this tortuosity for the greater part in sixth segment.
-
Forewing with first costal and first dorsal strigulae meeting; dorsal blotch a comparatively short and broad white stripe between base and first dorsal
 
6.5-9.0mm. April to early June, August. Forewing brown; basal streak slender, rather irregular, broadened at two-thirds or three-quarters, dark-edged on both sides. Vertex orange-brown, whitish posterioirly. Midleg with tarsus always flecked or banded. For genitalia see P. spinicolella.
 
65 (57)
Fringe forewing with cilia-line not preceded by lilac or greenish silvery reflections
P. cavella (part)
 
7.0-9.5mm. May and August, September. Forewing golden ochreous; white basal streak to near middle; below it a fine white line along dorsum, but not usually reaching first dorsal strigula or base. Thorax shining golden ochreous with strong white central line. Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly. See couplets 26 and 46.
-
Fringe forewing with cilia-line preceded by lilac or greenish silvery reflections
 
 
66 (65)
Forewing with basal streak extending to two-thirds. Thorax whitish
P. tenerella (part)
 
See couplet 17.
-
Forewing with basal streak shorter than one-half. Thorax golden brown, occasionally slightly orange, usually whitish anteriorly
 
 
67 (66)
Forewing without white line along dorsum or white dorsal patch between base and first dorsal strigula
 
-
Forewing with white line along dorsum or white dorsal patch between base and first dorsal strigula
 
 
68 (67)
Forewing bright orange, slightly reddish. Tarsus hindleg without dark markings
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late May and June. Thorax without pale central line. Vertex brown, often slightly orange, paler posteriorly.
-
Forewing golden brown or brown. Tarsus hindleg usually with dark markings
 
 
69 (68)
Forewing with first dorsal strigula long, extending to above second dorsal; basal streak broadest at three-quarters
 
7.5-9.0mm. May and August (in Britain). Thorax without pale central line. Vertex pale brown, lighter posteriorly. Hindleg with tarsus usually banded darker. See couplets 75 and 77.
-
Forewing with first dorsal strigula shorter, extending not beyond most proximal edge of first dorsal; basal streak of about equal width
 
6.0-8.0mm. May and August (in Britain). Thorax without pale central line. Vertex brownish, paler posteriorly. Hindleg with tarsus indistinctly banded grey. See couplet 78.
 
70 (67)
Forewing with fine white line along dorsum from base to first dorsal, occasionally interrupted
 
-
Forewing with dorsal patch or white line along dorsum not extended to base and to first dorsal strigula
 
 
71 (70)
Forewing brownish, usually dark brown. Thorax without pale central line
 
See couplet 76.
-
Forewing golden yellow or golden ochreous, occasionally brown. Thorax with pale central line
 
 
72 (71)
Forewing with apex of first dorsal strigula extended to above second dorsal strigula.
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late April to early June, August. Forewing pale golden brown, sometimes dark brown; first costal strigula extended as a fine line along costa towards base, but not reaching base; first dorsal strigula narrowly dark-edged inwardly. Hindleg with tarsus banded dark brown. Vertex pale brown, whitish posteriorly.
-
Forewing with apex of first dorsal strigula closer to wing base than to proximal edge of second dorsal strigula at dorsum
 
6.0-8.5mm. May, early June and August. Forewing ochreous brown, sometimes darker; first costal strigula extending a short distance along costa towards base; first dorsal strigula usually with both sides dark-edged on distal half. Hindleg usually with tarsus marked brownish. Vertex brown, whitish posteriorly.
 
73 (70)
Hindleg with tarsus without dark markings
 
-
Hindleg with tarsus banded or flecked, sometimes indistinct
 
 
74 (73)
Forewing greyish brown or olive brown; first dorsal ill-defined outwardly, fading into ground colour. Thorax with pale central line
 
7.5-9.5mm. Mid April to early October. Sometimes hindtarsus indistinctly dark-flecked. Vertex brown or pale brown, whitish posteriorly.
-
Forewing shining golden brown; first dorsal well-defined outwardly (not necessarily dark-edged). Thorax without pale central line
 
 
75 (74)
Forewing with apical streak represented by a fine line of black scales, not surrounded by scattered dark scales
 
Forewing with first dorsal only dark-edged outwardly near tip. See couplets 69 and 77.
-
Forewing with apical streak represented by an elongate patch of black scales surrounded by a few scattered dark scales
 
7.0-9.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing with first dorsal dark-edged outwardly. Vertex brownish, whitish posteriorly.
 
76 (73)
Forewing dark golden brown with basal area at least before first pair of strigulae often sprinkled variably with blackish scales, hardly sprinkled specimens always with scattered blackish scales beneath basal streak
 
6.0-9.0mm. Early April to early October. Forewing distally with scattered brown scales; markings white; basal streak broad, sometimes connected to first dorsal strigula and occasionally other connections between basal streak, first costal and dorsals one and two; second dorsal comparatively large, usually trapezoid; with white dorsal patch beneath basal streak. Vertex brownish orange, whitish posteriorly. See couplet 71.
-
Forewing golden brown without such sprinkling with blackish scales
 
Forewing variably scattered with dark scales in distal half; markings shining silvery white.
 
77 (76)
Generally larger species, 7.5-9.0mm, only occasionally less than 8.0mm. Forewing with apex of first dorsal extending to above second
 
May and August (in Britain). Forewing with basal streak broadest at three-quarters, tapering to pointed apex; first dorsal long, broadly sickle-shaped, sometimes slightly sinuate; second dorsal strigula large and triangular or trapezoid; with white dorsal patch beneath white basal streak. Vertex brownish orange, paler posteriorly. See couplets 69 and 75.
-
Generally smaller species, 6.0-8.0mm. Forewing with apex of first dorsal closer to wing base than proximal edge of second dorsal strigula at dorsum
 
Forewing with basal streak not or only slightly broadened, apex pointed or blunt; second dorsal strigula variable, from small and triangular to large and trapezoid. Vertex brownish, paler posteriorly.
 
78 (77)
Forewing with the variable black suffusion mainly confined to a streak or band between tip of first dorsal and black apical spot; first pair of dorsal and costal strigulae dark-edged on both sides; white dorsal patch beneath white dorsal streak absent or reduced to a faint line of white scales along dorsum
 
6.0-8.0mm. May and August (in Britain). Forewing with first dorsal long, wider at base, slightly curved and extending to just beyond first costal. Thorax without central line. Hindleg with tarsus indistinctly banded grey. See couplet 69.
-
Forewing with comparatively heavy scattering of brown scales in whole distal half of wing; first pair of dorsal and costal strigulae dark-edged inwardly, but not or faintly outwardly; white dorsal patch beneath white dorsal streak not reduced to a faint line
 
6.8-8.0mm. Late April to late September. Forewing with first dorsal long, narrow, strongly angled at apex, extending to beyond end of first costal, but occasionally almost meeting it to form an acute-angled fascia.
 
79 (6)
Forewing unicolorous dark brown; three or four costal and two dorsal spots, all ochreous white, subtriangular and distinct
 
10.0-13.0mm. May and June. Frons ochreous yellow; vertex ochreous, mixed dark, paler anteriorly. Labial palpus pale yellow. Forewing with first costal and dorsal spot occasionally meeting to form a fine cross-line, sometimes some fine pale costal strigulae near apex.
-
Forewing greyish with numerous, often indistinct whitish costal strigulae and additional whitish markings
 
 
80 (79)
Labial palpus with third segment unicolorous white or whitish
 
-
Labial palpus with third segment with black or greyish bands, spots or only some dark scales
 
 
81 (80)
Frons and vertex pure white, vertex with some blackish grey hairs anteriorly
 
9.0-11.0mm. Mid April to early October. Forewing dark grey without purplish gloss, appearing often more white than dark grey basally and towards dorsum; an apical dark grey spot, edged white inwardly by extension of costal white strigula nearest apex (not continued into cilia). Third segment labial palpus occasionally with dark spot or band.
-
Frons and vertex greyish ochreous or greyish white, sometimes with some dark hair-scales on vertex
 
 
82 (81)
Forewing with pale markings distinctly tinged ochreous
P. fagivora (part)
 
See couplet 88.
-
Forewing with pale markings white or whitish
 
 
83 (82)
Vertex pale ochreous, dark brown near scapus. Forewing with black apical dot strongly margined white inwardly by extension of white costal strigula nearest apex, which hence is continued into cilia at an obtuse angle (this extension occasionally indistinct or absent)
 
9.0-13.0mm. May to July. Forewing dark grey with purplish gloss; costal strigulae white, particularly towards apex white. Form with segment of labial palpus often immaculate. Frons greyish white. See couplet 86.
-
Vertex ochreous grey mixed dark greyish brown. Forewing with black apical dot strongly margined white inwardly by extension of white costal strigula nearest apex which is continued hence at right angles through the grey terminal cilia
 
8.5-11.0mm. May and August to early September. Forewing dark grey without purplish gloss; costal strigulae particularly towards apex pure white. Frons grey. Unicolorous third segment labial palpus occurs occasionally in this species. See couplet 86.
 
84 (80)
Frons and vertex pure white, vertex with some blackish grey hairs
 
11.0-13.0mm. April, May and July, August (in East Germany). Third segment of labial palpus with black spot outwardly. Forewing with ground colour pale bluish grey; costal strigulae whitish; white spot at three-quarters beneath costal strigulae extended towards termen. Frons white. Vertex greyish white, mixed dark grey anteriorly.
-
Frons from greyish white to dark grey, vertex from greyish white to ochreous grey or ochreous yellow, always more or less mixed greyish brown, especially near scapes
 
 
85 (84)
Forewing with black apical dot strongly marked white inwardly by extension of white costal strigula nearest apex which is continued hence into the greyish terminal cilia
 
-
Forewing with black apical dot not strongly marked inwardly by extended white costal strigula, continued into the darker terminal cilia
 
In P. anglicella forewing with blackish apical dot obscurely bounded white inwardly by extension of the most distad pale strigula on costa, but this extension is not continued into the grey cilia.
 
86 (85)
Vertex ochreous grey mixed dark greyish brown. Forewing with white inward edging of black apical dot continued at right angles through the grey terminal cilia
 
Third segment of labial palpus with incomplete blackish median band. For rare form with third segment of labial palpus immaculate see couplet 83.
-
Forewing with white inward edging of black apical dot continued through the grey terminal cilia at an obtuse angle (this extensoin occasionally indistinct or absent)
 
Third segment of labial palpus with dark dot outwardly, occasionally also inwardly. See couplet 83.
 
87 (85)
Forewing with pale markings distinctly tinged pale ochreous
 
Thorax pale ochreous, tegulae brown.
-
Forewing with pale markings white or whitish
 
Thorax greyish white, tegulae dark grey.
 
88 (87)
Third segment of labial palpus outwardly and inwardly with dark spot, occasionally fused to a complete band
 
8.5-10.5mm. April, May and July, August (in East Germany). Forewing with costa rather obscurely strigulated. Thorax pale ochreous, Tegulae brown. Frons dark grey. Vertex whitish ochreous, mixed brown.
-
Third segment of labial palpus only outwardly with dark spot (sometimes obsolescent), occasionally reduced to some dark scales
 
9.0-12.0mm. Mid April to early June and early July to late August. Forewing with costa obscurely strigulated. Labial palpus very occasionally immaculate. Frons dark grey; vertex whitish ochreous, mixed brown. See couplet 82.
 
89 (87)
Third segment of labial palpus with small grey subapical spot outwardly, sometimes obsolescent, but also complete bands occur. Forewing with tips of apical cilia white, dark third cilia-line not reaching apex. Frons whitish
 
9.0-14.0mm. Late April to early October. Costa forewing with whitish strigulae from base to apex, albeit more pronounced towards apex and sometimes less distinct in pale forms; ground colour without purplish gloss. Vertex dark ochreous grey.
-
Third segment of labial palpus with broad black band. Forewing with the tips of the apical cilia dark, dark third cilia-line extending to apex or beyond. Frons grey or dark grey
 
 
90 (89)
Third segment of labial palpus with distinct blackish brown broad band in apical half. Forewing with dark third cilia-line rarely quite passing apex
 
9.0-11.0mm. Late April to early October. Forewing with whitish costal strigulae often obscure except towards apex; ground colour dark greyish brown with purplish gloss; a blackish grey spot in disc at thee quarters, often followed by a whitish spot. Frons dark grey; vertex pale ochreous, mixed dark brown.
-
Third segment of labial palpus with distinct blackish brown broad median band. Forewing with dark third cilia-line distinctly passing apex
 
9.0-11.0mm. May to August. Forewing with distinct whitish costal strigulae from base to apex; ground colour with purplish tinge; an elongate blackish grey streak in disc at three quarters, often followed by a whitish spot. Frons grey; vertex whitish, mixed dark brown.
 
91 (5)
Tibia hindleg above with conspicuous series of stiff bristles
 
-
Tibia hindleg without bristles but with hair-scales or normal scales
 
 
92 (91)
Vertex and thorax pure white
 
10.0-12.0mm. April, May and July, August (in East Germany). Forewing white with yellowish brown fasciae and spots, all dark-edged. Frons pure white.
-
Vertex and thorax yellowish brown or metallic greyish
 
 
93 (92)
Forewing with apical hook. Vertex ochreous, not metallic
 
8.0-10.0mm. Late April to early October (adult hibernates). Forewing yellowish brown to dark brownish olive; one fascia and outward-oblique costal and dorsal streaks, all white, dark-edged, especially anteriorly. Frons ochreous, whitish beneath.
-
Forewing without apical hook. Vertex metallic greyish
 
 
94 (93)
Forewing brown, matt; markings whitish
 
7.0-9.0mm. May and July, August. Forewing with four or five oblique costal streaks and two dorsal spots. Frons and vertex silvery grey.
-
Forewing shining golden brown; markings silvery
 
7.0-10.0mm. May to August. Forewing with four costal streaks or spots, one apical and three dorsal spots; first costal and dorsal often connected, occasionally also other costals and dorsals connected. Frons silvery white. Vertex leaden metallic.
 
95 (91)
Labial palpus with second segment tufted beneath
 
-
Labial palpus with second segment not tufted
 
Labial palpus occasionally somewhat coarsely scaled.
 
96 (95)
Forewing from pale yellow to pale reddish brown, variably clouded with dark scales and usually with scattered dark dots
 
12.0-14.0mm. July to September (adult hibernates). Frons yellowish white, vertex concolorous with forewing.
-
Forewing greyish white with sparse dark scaling; indefinite, often incomplete ochreous grey markings: basal patch and three or four fasciae
 
11.0-13.0mm. July to October (adult hibernates). Frons and vertex pale greyish brown.
 
97 (95)
Forewing ochreous with broad whitish costal streak and with two longitudinal rows of blackish spots, sometimes a third incomplete row
 
10.0-13.0mm. May to August. Forewing comparatively broad, length costa four and a half times greatest width. Frons pale grey, vertex greyish yellow to pale greyish.
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
98 (97)
Forewing with blackish apical hook
 
9.0-10.0mm. Late April to mid August. Forewing dark brown; five white costal strigulae (second often indistinct); two longitudinal streaks and a dorsal streak, all white. Frons and vertex white.
-
Forewing without apical hook
 
 
99 (98)
Forewing dark brown with silvery markings: four costal and four dorsal streaks and an apical dot, occasionally first costal and second dorsal meeting to form a fascia
 
6.0-9.0mm. Early June to early September. Frons silvery white, vertex shining brown.
-
Forewing with markings not silvery, without dorsal streaks or with less than four
 
 
100 (99)
Forewing with two costal or subcostal spots and two dorsal spots, all white, yellow or golden
 
-
Forewing marked otherwise
 
 
101 (100)
Forewing shining dark grey with golden markings. Frons silvery white; vertex shining dark grey
 
8.0-10.0mm. Late April to late August. Forewing with markings dot dark-edged, not sprinkled with whitish, brown-tipped scales.
-
Forewing brownish with white or yellow markings. Frons and vertex brownish
 
8.0-11.0mm. July to October, adult hibernates. Forewing with markings variably dark-edged, often sprinkled with whitish, brown-tipped scales. See couplets 116 and 120.
 
102 (100)
Smaller species, 7.0-8.0mm. Forewing matt greyish violet with indistinct pale ochreous markings
 
Late May and June (in Southern France). Alien. Forewing sprinkled with pale scales.
-
Larger species, 8.0-18.5mm. Forewing otherwise
 
 
103 (102)
Forewing with yellowish golden, yellowish or whitish yellow median subtriangular costal blotch sharply defined.
 
-
Forewing without yellowish golden, yellowish or whitish yellow median costal blotch or, if present, not contrasting sharply with ground colour or irregularly shaped, not subtriangular
 
 
104 (103)
Forewing ochreous or brown, often with reddish tinge, not purplish tinged; costal blotch on costa marked with blackish dots. Frons pale ochreous brown
 
Terminal cilia forewing with three reddish brown cilia-lines. See couplet 113.
-
Forewing purplish brown with violet reflections; costal blotch on costa without dark dots. Frons pale golden yellow
 
Terminal cilia forewing occasionally with three very faint dark cilia-lines.
 
105 (104)
Forewing with median costal blotch outwardly produced along costa almost to apex.
 
10.0-14.0mm. Late April to late September. Forewing with yellow basal blotch well-defined; terminal cilia pale reddish brown, sometimes with three very faint dark cilia-lines. Thorax golden yellow, tegulae pale purplish brown. Vertex pale purplish brown.
-
Forewing with median costal blotch outwardly steeply to costa at about five-eighth and hardly or not produced to apex
 
10.0-13.0mm. Late April to mid August. Forewing with yellow basal blotch ill-defined; terminal cilia pale reddish brown, without dark cilia-lines. Thorax and tegulae ochreous. frons pale golden yellow; vertex ochreous, concolorous with thorax.
 
106 (103)
Forewing with yellowish, white, whitish or grey costal blotch
 
-
Forewing without pale costal blotch
 
Forewing with dark spots or parallel pale fascia, sometimes unicolorous without markings.
 
107 (106)
Forewing with costal blotch white or whitish
 
Terminal cilia of forewing with three dark cilia-lines.
-
Forewing with costal blotch ochreous, yellowish or grey
 
Terminal cilia of forewing with two or three dark cilia-lines or without cilia-lines, but tipped darker.
 
108 (107)
Forewing reddish brown with distinct well-defined white or whitish triangular costal blotch with outer margin deeply excavate
 
12.0-16.0mm. Throughout the year. Forewing with costal blotch occasionally suffused darker; costa with three or four small blackish spots; terminal cilia with three dark cilia-lines. Vertex brownish, grading to yellow on frons. See couplet 114.
-
Forewing reddish brown to blackish brown with whitish, yellowish grey or pale grey triangular costal blotch usually ill-defined outwardly, with distinct margin inwardly.
 
11.0-16.0mm. October and after hibernation April, May. Costa and dorsum forewing with numerous blackish spots; terminal cilia with three faint dark cilia-lines. Frons and vertex reddish brown or greyish brown, but frons paler, sometimes greyish white beneath. See couplets 113 and 121.
 
109 (107)
Terminal cilia of forewing without dark cilia-lines albeit tipped slightly darker. Forewing ranging from glossy reddish ochreous to yellowish grey
 
-
Terminal cilia of forewing with three dark cilia-lines. Forewing ranging from reddish brown to blackish brown
 
 
110 (109)
Hindleg with trochanter and adjacent areas of coxa and femur white, contrasting with dark colour of rest of coxa and femur
C. betulicola (part)
 
14.0-17.5mm. February to November, adult hibernates. Forewing with costal blotch more often present than in C. elongella, more distinct and darker edged. Frons and vertex variably coloured. Foreleg with tibia blackish grey, at most with faint reddish sheen. See couplet 123.
-
Hindleg with trochanter and adjacent areas of coxa and femur concolorous with forewing; if this area occasionally is paler, it is yellowish, not white
C. elongella (part)
 
14.0-18.5mm. March to October, adult hibernates. Frons and vertex variably coloured. Foreleg with tibia bright reddish brown. See couplet 123.
 
111 (109)
Forewing with pale costal blotch extending almost to apex or outwardly grading into ground colour
 
-
Forewing with pale costal blotch not exceeding two-thirds of costa
 
 
112 (111)
Smaller species, 8.0-11.0 mm. Vertex leaden or purplish grey
 
10.0-11.0mm. Early May to early June and early July to mid August (outdoors); occurring in greenhouses, but since about 1997 it can also maintain itself in the open. Forewing with terminal cilia purplish with two dark cilia-lines. Vertex grey, often with purplish tinge; frons pale yellow.
-
Larger species, 11.0-16.0 mm. Vertex from ochreous to reddish brown or greyish brown
 
 
113 (112)
Forewing with costal blotch yellowish grey or pale grey; basal one-quarter with outer edge at an angle of 60 degrees or more to costa
 
See couplets 108 and 121.
-
Forewing with costal blotch yellowish or pale ochreous (rarely yellowish white); basal one-quarter with outer edge at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees to costa
 
11.0-14.0mm. September to May, adult hibernates (in Britain) ; Dutch adults have been found in July. Forewing ochreous or brown, often with reddish tinge. Frons and vertex pale ochreous to brown. See couplet 104.
 
114 (111)
Forewing unicolorous reddish brown except for pale costal blotch; costal blotch with tip curved towards tornus
 
See couplet 108.
-
Forewing not unicolorous except for pale costal blotch; costal blotch with tip not curved towards tornus
 
 
115 (106)
Forewing with pale markings, consisting of dorsal streak or one or more spots or fasciae
 
-
Forewing without pale markings
 
Forewing unmarked, unicolorous or only with dark spots or dark suffusion; dark spots occasionally fused to a pattern of fasciae.
 
116 (115)
Forewing with complicated pattern or traces of it, consisting of one or more complete outwardly oblique fasciae
 
10.0-13.0mm. Mid April to late September. Forewing yellowish brown. Frons pale brownish grey, vertex darker.
-
Forewing with white or whitish dorsal streak, sometimes not originating from base; with or without white or whitish marginal spots
 
See couplets 101 and 120.
 
117 (115)
Forewing with costa spotted blackish, one large costal spot on middle
 
In dark specimens of Caloptilia suberinella this larger costal spot connected with other enlarged spots to more or less form a transverse dark fascia, sometimes a similar fascia at four-fifth.
-
Forewing with or without a series of dark costal spots, but if so, a larger one in middle of costa absent
 
 
118 (117)
Fore- and midleg with tarsus white, sharply contrasting with dark tibia
 
11.0-14.0mm. July to September and after hibernation in May. Forewing ranging from pale ochreous to brown; fringe with cilia-lines often faint. Frons and vertex concolorous with forewing. Hindleg with trochanter and adjacent areas of coxa and femur white.
-
Fore- and midleg with tarsus unicolorous with dark tibia
 
14.0-18.0mm. Knowledge of voltinism incomplete, probably similar to C. populetorum. Colour forewing similar to C. populetorum; scattered with blackish scales, dark spots often enlarged and fused; fringe with cilia-lines faint or indiscernible. Frons and vertex greyish brown. Hindleg with trochanter not coloured paler.
 
119 (117)
Forewing with cilia-lines at least in apical part of terminal fringe, occasionally weak
 
-
Forewing without cilia-lines in terminal fringe
 
 
120 (119)
Forewing without dark costal spots
 
Forewing unicolorous paler or darker brown. See also couplets 101 and 116.
-
Forewing with dark costal spots
 
 
121 (120)
Forewing fringe with two distinct complete dark cilia-lines
 
14.0-16.0mm. June and from September to April, adult hibernates (in East Germany). Forewing ranging from yellowish to brown and greyish. Frons and vertex concolorous with forewing.
-
Forewing with three faint dark cilia-lines only in apical part of terminal fringe
 
See couplets 109 and 113.
 
122 (119)
Smaller species, 10.0-13.0mm
 
Late June to early October, adult hibernates in Britain and East Germany. Forewing glossy brownish with faint violet sheen, sometimes more or less distinct blackish spots. Frons and vertex concolorous with forewing.
-
Larger species, 14.0-18.5mm
 
 
123 (122)
Hindleg with trochanter and adjacent areas of coxa and femur concolorous with forewing, if this area occasionally is coloured paler, it is yellowish, not white
C. elongella (part)
 
See couplet 110.
-
Hindleg with trochanter and adjacent areas of coxa and femur white, contrasting with dark colour of rest of coxa and femur
 
See couplet 110.
 

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